polysci notes 7

polysci notes 7 - 2/12 Marsilio of Padua (1275-1343) Nicolo...

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2/12 Marsilio of Padua (1275-1343) Nicolo Machiavelli (1469-1527) The Prince (1513) The Discourses (1521) Marsilio Background Physician and student of philosophy and law who loved Aristotle because of his empiricism During his time the Bourgeoisie developed which changed social and political organizations The church liked disunity and didn’t want the states to unite Beliefs Strong rejection of superstitious religions Believed secular philosophy is above theology Headed towards the separation of church and state o Believed they should have nothing to do with each other o Complete separation of ethics and politics Argues law has nothing to do with justice o Law is defined as being nothing more than the coercive command of the legislator enforceable in courts Argues humans are seeking a sufficient life o We have no inherent sense of justice only certain needs that are met with the help of the government. Source of law is human society themselves (people in the community) o Who will make the law? The weightier part of the society…but no one group should dominate
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Adds to Aristotle’s beliefs- in good government the ruler rules for common good in accordance with the will of the people o He suggested that a large number of people should have a part in government He defended the common sense of people Feared elite rule (by one) Said good law has been studied by many o Only a relative few can actually write the laws o Everyone can be a proper judge of the law Defense of the representative democracy Suggested that people can correct or even remove rulers when they disobey the law (Rule of Law) Tries to institutionalize the accountability of those who rule Forerunner of Protestantism o Sin is forgiven by God directly not through a priest Argues that the church should simply be a part of the state and that it should work for the good of the state o If the church has excess land it should sell it for the well-fare of the state Denied the sanctity of the Catholic church Machiavelli (1469-1527) Background The Pope was still powerful and Italy was hopelessly divided Modernist thinkers resented that Lack of political unity Greta intellectuals were still fascinated by the classics (Greeks/Romans-Aristotle, Sophists, Cicero etc. ) Political system decentralized-full of rivalry and crime
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Machiavelli was from Florence a dynamic city both intellectually and politically At 29 he took on many roles in the republican (government elected by the people) Florence o Florence=powerful challenge to Pope Machiavelli was a diplomat, military advisor, and foreign policy advisor o Well traveled as a diplomat o Great observer At 43 the government of Florence was overthrown with the help and connivance of the
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course POLYSCI 106 taught by Professor Freysinger during the Fall '08 term at UConn.

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polysci notes 7 - 2/12 Marsilio of Padua (1275-1343) Nicolo...

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