polysci exam 1

polysci exam 1 - Exam Questions Group A: 1. Platos approach...

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Unformatted text preview: Exam Questions Group A: 1. Platos approach to acquiring knowledge:-Argues the eternal unchanging t ruths known only to a few philosophers the forms are the real reality not what we call reality-not an empiricist- Not an empiricist-t ruth deduced by the study of forms- Said the true philosopher has a love of the forms and uses the Socratic method, is generous, unconcerned with worldly goods and pleasures-Follows the Theory of Forms created by Socrates:-t rue knowledge exists in a metaphysical world beyond the here and now where eternal t ruths reside-you cant acquire the good or knowledge -what is a rose? We would say it is something that has thorns, a particular smell, type of plant etc-also the sophist view Socrates would say that the rose is the idea of a rose that exists in another metaphysical realm that can only be accessed by a few men trained by his Socratic belief-Polis should be ruled by a handful of men of knowledge like him or his trainees who understand the forms-this makes knowledge inaccessible -Uses the dialectic in The Republic-Dialectic (way of teaching) constant format to discussions *starts with Socrates asking students a question such as what is a rose or what is justice back and forth format until it dwindles down to Socrates original belief Platos political system: 3. Platos Theory of Justice:-Justice is a situation in which all people are doing what they are best suited for by their nature-specialization of function-profoundly explicit hierarchy of talents within society leads to profound rejection of Athenian democracy- 4. Aristotles Theory of Justice:-Justice: sense of balance or golden mean/harmony General-most important Justice is the sum of a bunch of virtues and the harmony between these virtues that makes life in the polis political system possible Virtues include: courage but not crazy, balanced pride, temperance, pride, honor, tact, liberality (tolerance), generosity, non-boastfullness, non-obsequieness (stand on your own two feet Distributive-distribution of wealth and honor Those who deserve honor and wealth should have it those who dont shouldnt. Retributive-rectification of injuries between/among people Group B: Luthers beliefs: *Martin Luther was a priest who got so angry with the church he wrote down 95 thesis or grievances with the church and hung them up on a cathedral-got in trouble with the catholic church and then leaves it *Denied papal authority and created Lutheranism a form of Protestantism * People looked to him for leadership against the Catholic church He believed that an individual person didnt need to be ruled by the church, that everyone was equal in Gods eyes, and that you dont need the church or priests to be saved...
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polysci exam 1 - Exam Questions Group A: 1. Platos approach...

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