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Ch 1: Notes - Ch 1 ORIGINS OF AMER GOV'T Gov't o Indiv and...

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Ch 1 ORIGINS OF AMER. GOV’T - Gov’t o Indiv and institutions o Policies made o Affairs of state conducted o Actions binding on all citizens o Can use force to keep order – prevent chaos o Forman admin structures; exist on nat’l, state, local levels o Trial and error - Citizens o Members of poli comm. o Freedoms guaranteed by gov’t in exchange for obedience (laws, constitut) - Politics: how policy decisions are made - Functions of gov’t o Est. justice Bill of rights – rights for all citizens Laws; common set of principles – eg: trial by jury, know charges, courtroom w impartial judge o Ensuring domestic tranquility Extraordinary measure: Dept of Homeland Security Nat’l gov’t has almost unprecedented ability to find potential threats Less extraordinary measures Local: Police forces State: nat’l guards Fed gov’t: troops o Provide for the common defense Huge budget President: commander in chief for armed forces Congress: authority to raise an army o Promoting the General Welfare More of an ideal than a mandate Many diff opinions on the involvement/scope of gov’t (eg: healthcare) o Securing the blessings of liberty Freedoms/liberties – speech, etc (criticize gov’t, grievances) Freedom to prosper - Types of gov’t o Monarchy: rejected by Framers Power: hereditary kings/queens, govern in the interests of all o Totalitarianism: economic system; gov’t has compelte control of economy
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Power: unlimited, in one person People: no rights/liberties Usually: around a religion/ideology/personality cult o Democracy: power to the people through elected reps/directly ROOTS OF AMER COV’T - The reformation and the enlightenment: questioning the divine right of kings o Fall of roman empire kings ruled their countries absolutely (“Divine right” people had no right to question) o Issac Newton: changed POV World made better through human reason, science, religious toleration CHALLENGED: idea that fate controlled destiny; “Divine Right” o Reformation/enlightenment alternatives of absolute monarches; new methods
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