5-ProteinFall2016 - Chapter 6 Protein Protein in our diet...

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Chapter 6: Protein
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Protein in our diet Fig 6.1
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Protein in our diet Fig 6.1
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Proteins Basic unit = amino acid 20 amino acids Major atoms: C H O N, sometimes sulfur Polypeptide Many amino acids bonded together to form a chain Dipeptide, Tripeptide
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Chemical Structure Fig 6.2
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Some amino acids are essential 9 amino acids are essential Amino acids that the body cannot make in sufficient quantity 6 amino acids are “semiessential” In certain situations, the body cannot make this amino acid in sufficient quantity Amino acid names usually end in -ine
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Fig 6.2
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Fig 6.2
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Protein Digestion Heat/acid/alkali/enzymes Results in alteration of the protein’s 3D structure Denaturation
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What happens next? Enzymes cut the polypeptide into pieces and eventually single amino acids
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Digestive enzymes for protein “Protease” is the general term “-ase” often indicates an enzyme Many have a “safety switch” Need activation Prevents self-digestion Most cut proteins at certain amino acids EX: Trypsin cleaves next to arginine and lysine
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Protein Digestion Gastric Acid (HCl) in stomach denatures protein Proteases in stomach, small intestine End product are di/tripeptides, Fig 6.4
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Protein absorption In small intestine Amino acids and small peptides are absorbed    amino acids Amino acids go to liver next via cardiovascular system
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Fig 6.4 pg 158
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Fate of dietary protein Fig 6.5
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Proteins in the body Amino acids come from diet and body turnover Blood transports amino acids Amino acid pool (controlled by liver) All proteins are made from scratch DNA has the code to manufacture proteins AA come from diet or are made by the body Structure of protein determines function
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Fig 6.6 Both Dietary and Body Protein Add to Amino Acid Pool
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DNA has codes for protein synthesis (“protein recipes”) Fig 6.6
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Fig 6.6 Transcription and Translation to Make a Protein
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