BIO 101 Section I Notes

BIO 101 Section I Notes - BIO 101 H C N O are likely to...

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BIO 101 H, C, N, O – are likely to react Don’t need to know functional groups or structures of amino acids Organic molecules are made of many single monomers Organic molecules are made up of many single monomers Carbohydrates (CHO- carbon+hydrogen+oxygen) o Common energy storage o Molecules: sugars and starches o Glucose (monomer) – 6-carbon ring structure o Glycogen, cellulose, chitin (polymer) 2 or more monomers bonded form a polymer Cellulose is complex and hard for the body to break-down Lipids o Hydrophobic- very resistant to water because they are uncharged and resistant to it o More energy per gram than carbohydrates Phospholipids- in water hydrophilic heads face outward and hydrophobic tails face inward forming a stable bilayer Nucleic acid o DNA o RNA o Made up of nucleotides
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o Monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides Each nucleotide is composed of a sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous base o Sugar and phosphate form the backbone of nucleic acids DNA o Directs assembly of amino acids ATP- a nucleotide o 3 phosphate groups+1sugar+1base Proteins- linked amino acids joined by peptide bonds (polypeptides) Levels of protein structure o Single strands of amino acids forming more complex structures like helices, pleated sheets, then forming larger quaternary structures Proteins: o Form structures o Effect movement- actin and myosin o Antibodies protect o Cell channels transport o Transmit info o Communicate messages: hormones Enzymes are catalysts- increase reaction rate o Reactants are called substrates
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Negative feedback- the product of a reaction series inhibits the first enzyme in the series o This represents stabilizing or negative feedback Factors affecting enzyme activity o Inhibitors- may bind active site or change shape of an enyme o PH(acidity or baseicity) -ions in solution may affect bonds in enzyme o Temperature- increased temp increases reaction rate The amount of substrate that you have is always what limits the reaction 1/24/08 Photosynthesis Only need to know the names of the molecules mentioned in class Most of the mass of a plant comes form CO2 in the air Plants need Co2, H2O, sunlight, and micronutrients for photosynthesis Van Helmont discovered in the 1600’s that plants increased in mass without soil loss- thought the increase came from water Leaf is a solar collector Waxy cuticle keeps water in; keeps it hydrated Special openings called stomata let CO2 in for photosynthesis Takes in water and minerals through vascular bundles, roots Chloroplasts o Internal membranes, inner one organized into Thalakoids (light reactions are embedded here
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o Light reactions are the conversion of light energy to chemical energy when an electron is boosted to a higher energy level- chlorophyll o Light independent reactions convert chemical energy to usable molecules such as glucose (?) Prokaryotes photosynthesize without membrane-bound organelles
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Hogan during the Spring '08 term at UNC.

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BIO 101 Section I Notes - BIO 101 H C N O are likely to...

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