geology final

geology final - FINAL will be 50 old questions and 30 new...

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FINAL will be 50 old questions and 30 new ones. GEOLOGY FINAL NOTES Chapter 16 Mass wasting - includes all processes by which rock/soil move downhill under influence of gravity. - Is a consequence of weathering, and is important part of general erosion, especially in mountainous areas - Human interference can cause severe effects. In the usa, excavation for buildings/ homes causes more soil to be transported than by all the natural processes. - What factors control rate and amount of mass wasting? o Nature of rock.soil Unconsolidated – loose uncemented material Consolidated – compacted and bound together material o steepness and stability of slope o amount of water in the materials - for unconsolidated material – angle of repose is critical. Is the maximum angle from the horizontal that material will lie without cascading down. Depends on shape/size of material grains and degree of wetness. - Steepness of slope for rocks depends on type of rock and degree of weathering. Shales and volcanic ash weather to gentle inclines. - Hard sandstones, limestones, granite weather to almost vertical cluffs - What triggers mass movements? o If type of material, moisture and steepness of slop are “right”, heavy rainfall, earthquakes can be the trigger. - for unconsolidated material – look to soil creep – slow downhill movement of loose material. Other forms faster, slump, debrisslide - natural landslides - mass wasting common in all plate tectonic settings. Most obvious near convergent plate boundaries, where high mountains are formed. Also occurs on ocean beds. - Mans activities contribute to erosion and mass wasting especially cutting away vegetation and building strip malls. CHAPTER 17 Ground Water Following rainfall, part of the water flows off at surface into streams. Some of the water percolates into the ground and forms a reservoir – groundwater At the earths surgace about 96% of water is salty. Of the 4% fresh water. Reservoirs are in order of importance: - glaciers and polar ice
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- ground water - lakes and rivers - atmosphere and biosphere there is a blance between level of water in the oceans, evaporation of this water, and precipitation by rain/snowfall. This is called Hydrologic Cycle. During glacial periods, water drawn out of oceans and dumped as snow on land – sea level falls During warmer periods, snow/ice melts, water flows back to oceans – sea level rises. Landscape and rainfall. In mountainous areas-rainfall occurs on windward side, whereas - water inside the ground o beds that store and transmit water are called aquifers. o
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course GEOL 1001 taught by Professor Baksi during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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geology final - FINAL will be 50 old questions and 30 new...

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