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aol. psych exam 1

aol. psych exam 1 - Adolescent Psychology Exam 1 Terms...

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Adolescent Psychology Exam 1 Terms culture-pattern of groups customs, art, beliefs and technology common way of life passed through generations the West-US, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and New Zealand industrialized with representative government industrialized country-the West and Eastern countries passed industrial revolution; mainly based on services and information Japan and South Korea majority culture-culture that sets most of the norms and holds most of the power in the US—white, middle class society-group of people who interact in the course of sharing a common area traditional culture-based on stable traditions, valuing stability over change Japan and third-world countries developing countries-traditional pre-industrialized countries becoming industrialized South America and Africa socioeconomic society-social class educational level income level occupational status Chapter 1 History of Adolescence in Western Culture Ancient Times -Plato & Aristotle—life occurs in stages 1. infancy: birth-7 2. childhood: 7-14 3. adolescence: 14-21 -Plato—adolescence is when capacity for reason to develop
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-serious education should not start until the beginning of adolescence -current issue: differences in responsibility according to age Early Christian Times through Middle Ages -one influential book: St. Augustine’s autobiography, Confessions -views Middle Ages even harder to find -children’s crusade -shame & humiliation over the 4 th crusade (unable to repay Venice, sack of Zara) -1212—Stephen—Cloyes, France & Nicholas—Germany -children have to have purity to take back Holy Land -death on the way -banked in Egypt, sold into slavery or murdered -people of Middle Ages saw youth as time of innocence with special powers Adolescence from 1500-1890 -1500s—life cycle service -spent ~7 years learning a trade -faded in US in 18 th & 19 th centuries -everyone farmed -industrialization moved people to cities -adolescence is a social problem Age of Adolescence 1890-1920 -changes focused attention on adolescence 1. laws against child labor -horrible conditions -brown/black lung 2. development of laws requiring longer schooling -inventionist view—laws regarding child labor & schooling a way to keep young from earning money & dependent on adults 3. G. Stanley Hall -founds study of adolescence -from 12/13-22/25 -“strum & drang”-storm & stress -first book on adolescence---Adolescence -recapitulation-each person reenacts evolutionary development of human -research today conflicts with Hall’s view, though that too is changing 4. Margret Mead—Coming of Age in Samoa (1950)
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- cultural relativism-importance of social institutions/cultural factors in human development -meaningful identity-more difficult in modern societies; primitive societies still use puberty rituals -sexuality in adolescents -flaws in research -limited sample -no male perspective Stereotypes of Adolescents - stereotype—broad category, impressions, & beliefs; “typical member” -Joseph Adelson—adolescent generalization gap; negative stereotypes are based on small, easily visible percentage of
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