aol. psyc test 2

aol. psyc test 2 - Chapter 4 Cognitive Development...

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Chapter 4: Cognitive Development Cognition - literally means “ the act of knowing or perceiving.” Changes during adolescence and emerging adulthood in how young people think, how they solve problems, and how their capacities for memory and attention change. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development Piaget began his work in Alfred Binet’s Paris laboratory, where modern intelligence tests originated. Piaget became more interested in how children reached conclusions than in whether their answers were correct. He concluded that age differences in patterns of wrong answers reflected differences in how children of various ages thought about the questions. As it was based on how cognition changes with age, Piaget’s theory became knows as the cognitive- development approach . Piaget taught that cognitive development is the combined result of environmental influences and the maturation of the brain and nervous system. Schema - represents the original patterns of thinking or the mental structures that people use of dealing with what happens in the environment. Adaptation - including and adjusting to new information that increases a person’s understand. (Two Types of Adaptation) Assimilation - is taking new information by using already existing structures in response to new environmental stimuli. o Schema stays the same . Accommodation - involves adjusting to new information by creating new structures to replace the old. o Schema changes Equilibrium - involves achieving a balance between assimilation and accommodation. Disequilibrium - arises when there is a difference between reality and a person’s comprehension of it, when further accommodation is necessary. Piaget’s Stages *Stop Picking Cat Fur sensorimoter- (birth to 2 years old)- infants fine an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences, such as hearing seeing.
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-Thinking, if any, occurs as a stimulus-response connection with the physical world without mediation. Preoperational-(2 to 7 years old)- children begin dealing with their world by learning language, symbolic thought o -symbolic play, or internalized imitation, emerges. o -Syncretism -is trying to link ideas that are not actually related. o - Egocentrism - they are not capable of taking on someone else’s perspective Concrete operation- (7 to 11 years old) - beginning of logical thought, though it relates only to things actually experienced. o Class-inclusion relationships; serialization; reciprocity; conservation. Formal operation- (11 to adulthood) - move past concrete experiences and think in abstract and more logical terms. o Introspection; inductive reasoning; deductive reasoning; projection into the future o The attainment of formal operations is not an all- or- nothing proposition. o
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course PSYCH 2078 taught by Professor Velotta during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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aol. psyc test 2 - Chapter 4 Cognitive Development...

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