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Unformatted text preview: Friday Jan 19 Geography: Regional geography : the study of geography based on grouping/ categorizing places based on some criteria; physical geography, political boundaries, language, ethnicity, religion, ect. ex: if your driving west on I 10 how would you know your in Texas- better roads, rivers, ect Cultural landscape : the visible material expression of human settlement, past and present Ex: anything the people are doing, how do they alter the natural environment? Carl Sauer- influential geographer at LSU Demograph: Rate of natural increase (RNI): the number of births minus the number of deaths, usually figured per 1000 persons If there is the same number of deaths and births it means the population is stable Total fertility rate (TFR): an avg. of how many children a women will bear during her lifetime, based on a cultural and statistical data. Population density: number of persons per square unit of area Ex: persons/square mile Demographic transitions model: Stage 1 : both high birthrates and death rates. Only some parts of some countries are still in this stage No country like this in the world today Stage 2 : death rates fall while birth rates remain high Society is more stable, medical improvements are made, population growth increases dramatically- transitional stage Stage 3: birth rates begin to fall. Death rates even out at a low level Transitional stage: more access to health care, people prefer urban living: population growing slowly Stage 4 : birth rates fall to low levels. Very low RNI Industrialized stage, women choose to have fewer children, all or industrialized world are in this stage, Most countries fall in btw stage 3&4 PROBLEMS: model doesn’t include immigration, doesn’t include post industrial society, based on US and Europe- no proof other countries will follow this model Human development Index:- used by United Nations-a score based on infant morality rate-number of infants who die in their first yr of life ., adult literacy rate, life expectancy rate, and female participation in labor force and GDP- gross domestic product per capita -highest possible score is 1 Norway is the top - high literacy rate; people have free access to health care .965 US is 8 with .948 Top is filled with European and North American countries Middle- South America, Middle East Bottom- Africa Problems- some parts of certain countries may be better or worse than they are ranked Urbanization-the world is becoming increasingly urbanized-pull factors: why do people want to move to cities? Jobs, convenience, schools, healthcare, better roads, more jobs-push factors: why do people want to move away from countryside Pollutions, farm, agriculture-falling prices, technology- purchase farming Urban - most young people want to get off farm Urban primacy : one city is disproportionately large and influential Ex: new York city-TV 90% is in NY-Overurbanization- too many people for space and resources; schools, healthcare Squatter Settlements- Squatter- on property illegally, they don’t pay taxes, bring property value down, no sewer system-...
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- Spring '08
- Geography, birth rates, death rates, transitional stage Stage, china communist cont.