Vocabulary - The History and Scope or Psychology Module 1...

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The History and Scope or Psychology Module 1 1. Empiricism – the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment. 2. Structuralism – an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. 3. Functionalism – a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. 4. Psychology – the science of behavior and mental processes. 5. Nature-nurture issue – the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. 6. Natural selection – the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. 7. Basic research – pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base. 8. Applied research – scientific study that aims to solve practical problems. 9. Clinical psychology – a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders. 10. Psychiatry – a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy. Research Strategies Module 2 1. Hindsight bias – the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. 2. Critical thinking – thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. 3. Theory – an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. 4. Hypothesis – a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. 5. Operational definition – a statement of the procedures used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. 6. Replication – repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. 7. Case study – an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. 8. Survey – a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. 9. False consensus effect – the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
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10. Population – all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. 11. Random sample – a sample that fairly represents a population because each
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor Berry during the Spring '08 term at Richmond.

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Vocabulary - The History and Scope or Psychology Module 1...

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