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H1111StudentOutlines - Defining Civilization I. Basic...

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Defining Civilization I. Basic Definitions A. A relatively high level of cultural/technological development B. A society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations) C. The stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained II. Economic Characteristics A. Ability to produce a surplus of food B. Division of labor C. Complex forms of exchange (trade/use of money) D. Development of new technologies E. Accumulation of more material possessions III. Social/Cultural Characteristics A. Permanent settlements (cities) B. Social Hierarchy (ruling class) C. Control through government/legal system) D. Formal institutions (religion/education) E. Advanced development of the arts, including writing The First Civilizations
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I. Paleolithic/Mesolithic Periods (the “Stone Age”) A. When/Where? - 2,000,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE - Europe; SW Asia B. Characteristics - hunters and gatherers - nomadic/few settlements (30-50 people) - development of stone tools C. CroMagnon Man (35,000 BCE - 10,000 BCE ) - first humans to which man belongs - cave paintings/religious practices II. Neolithic Period (the Copper Ages) A. When/Where? - 10,000 BCE to 2,000 BCE - Middle East/Indian subcontinent B. Characteristics - development of agriculture/domesticated animals - permanent self-sufficient settlements - early crafts (pottery/metal working/textiles) - division of labor/private property social classes - development of arts C. The First Civilizations Emerge - Mesopotamia (the “Fertile Crescent”) - Egypt and the Nile Mesopotamia I. When and Where?
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- 3000 BCE to 1600 BCE (the Bronze Age) Bronze = copper/tin alloy - along the Fertile Crescent II. Early Civilizations in Mesopotamia A. Sumer , ( 4300-2400 BCE ) - the first civilization B. Akkad ( 2400-2100 BCE ) - the first “empire” (conquest of Sumer) C. Amorites ( first Babylonian, 2100-1600 BCE) - conquest of Assyria/Sumer/Akkad III. Hammurabi = s Code A. Law belonged to all/could not be manipulated - not vigilante justice (use of judges) C. Insights into Society - husband has absolute power IV. Arts, Sciences, and Society A. Arts and Sciences - mathematics/ medicine/ literature B. Society - social classes/ religion Egypt . The Role of the Nile A. Consistent flooding/flows = agricultural surplus B. Key for communications/unifying region
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. Kings, Religion and the Afterlife A. The Pharaoh (god on earth) - divine kingship/absolute control over everything B. Religion - polytheistic (gods cared for people) - gods based on environment/life C. The Afterlife (The Book of the Dead) III. Periods of Egyptian History A. Early Dynastic (3100 - 2660 BCE ) - development of writing (hieroglyphics/papyrus) B. Old Kingdom (2715 - 2180 BCE ) - construction of pyramids (symbol of pharaoh = s power) C. First Intermediate (2180 - 2080 BCE ) - political chaos (famine/weak leaders) D. Middle Kingdom (2080 - 1640 BCE ) - political stability/literary production E. Second Intermediate
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H1111StudentOutlines - Defining Civilization I. Basic...

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