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CH.20 EMOTION & THE SOCIAL BRAIN1. THE NATURE OF EMOTION -DAMASIO emphasizes that emotion is a cognitive process that contributes to logical thinking unconscious and conscious signals emanating from the neural machinery underlying emotion significantly influence the mechanisms of reasoning-Unconscious inferenceprocesses outside awareness and learned by experience1.A. What Are Emotions?1.B. Components of Emotion -the experience of emotion has 4 behavioral components and each can be quantified as well as observed:-1. Psychophysiologyphysiological components include central and autonomic nervous system activity and the resulting changes in neurohormonal and visceral (somatic) activity oemotion changes HR, BP, distribution of blood flow, perspiration and the digestive system, as well as the release of hormones that may affect the brain or the ANSosome emotional states (happiness vs. sadness for example) can be differentiated by the associated physiological changes each engenders-2. Distinctive motor behaviorfacial expression, tone of voice, and posture all express emotional statesothese motor behaviors are important to observing emotions b/c they convey overt action that can differ from observed verbal behavior -3. Self-Reported Cognitioncognitive processes are inferred from self-reports ocognition operates in the realm of both subjective emotional feelings (feeling love or hate, feeling loved or hated) and other cognitive processes (plans, memories or ideas)-4. Unconscious behaviorthis components incorporates von HELMHOTLZ’s unconscious inference– cognitive processes of which we are not aware that influence behavior owe make decisions on the basis of “intuition” or a hunch or other apparently unfounded bases-a contemporary theory of emotion must include at least these 4 principle behavioral components -the theoretical distinction among physiology, movement, self-reports, and unconscious action is significant b/c researchers detect little correlation among the physical states of emotion when all of them are measured in the same participants 2. HISTORICAL VIEWS 2.A. Investigating the Anatomy of Emotion -Darwin was the first to draw attention to the biology of emotion believed that b/c emotional behavioris determined by evolution, human emotional expression could be understood only in the context of its expression in other animals-Psychologists began to think about emotions in the 20thcentury but had little knowledge about the neural basis of emotional behavior-