CH.20 - emotion - CH.20 EMOTION THE SOCIAL BRAIN 1 THE NATURE OF EMOTION DAMASIO emphasizes that emotion is a cognitive process that contributes to

CH.20 - emotion - CH.20 EMOTION THE SOCIAL BRAIN 1 THE...

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CH.20 EMOTION & THE SOCIAL BRAIN 1. THE NATURE OF EMOTION - DAMASIO emphasizes that emotion is a cognitive process that contributes to logical thinking unconscious and conscious signals emanating from the neural machinery underlying emotion significantly influence the mechanisms of reasoning - Unconscious inference processes outside awareness and learned by experience 1.A. What Are Emotions? 1.B. Components of Emotion - the experience of emotion has 4 behavioral components and each can be quantified as well as observed: - 1. Psychophysiology physiological components include central and autonomic nervous system activity and the resulting changes in neurohormonal and visceral (somatic) activity o emotion changes HR, BP, distribution of blood flow, perspiration and the digestive system, as well as the release of hormones that may affect the brain or the ANS o some emotional states (happiness vs. sadness for example) can be differentiated by the associated physiological changes each engenders - 2. Distinctive motor behavior facial expression, tone of voice, and posture all express emotional states o these motor behaviors are important to observing emotions b/c they convey overt action that can differ from observed verbal behavior - 3 . Self-Reported Cognition cognitive processes are inferred from self-reports o cognition operates in the realm of both subjective emotional feelings (feeling love or hate, feeling loved or hated) and other cognitive processes (plans, memories or ideas) - 4. Unconscious behavior this components incorporates von HELMHOTLZ’s unconscious inference – cognitive processes of which we are not aware that influence behavior o we make decisions on the basis of “intuition” or a hunch or other apparently unfounded bases - a contemporary theory of emotion must include at least these 4 principle behavioral components - the theoretical distinction among physiology, movement, self-reports, and unconscious action is significant b/c researchers detect little correlation among the physical states of emotion when all of them are measured in the same participants 2. HISTORICAL VIEWS 2.A. Investigating the Anatomy of Emotion - Darwin was the first to draw attention to the biology of emotion believed that b/c emotional behavior is determined by evolution, human emotional expression could be understood only in the context of its expression in other animals - Psychologists began to think about emotions in the 20 th century but had little knowledge about the neural basis of emotional behavior -

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