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Unformatted text preview: Motivation Part II Motivation
September 17, 2008 Previous Class Previous
Focused on the “person.”
– People are motivated to fulfill certain needs. – Everyone has the same set of needs.
(E.g. Maslow’s Hierarchy, ERG Theory) – For certain people, some needs are stronger than others.
Needs for achievement, affiliation, power. Beyond the “Person” Beyond
Situational Approach to Increasing Work Motivation Key Question: How does the situation or work context influence the extent to which people are motivated to complete job related tasks? Origins of the Situational Approach Origins
Scientific Management 1911 (Frederick Taylor)
– What could be done to get people to do more work in less time? – Studied individual movements of workers at steel mill (time and motion studies). – Modern example: UPS—Walk to door at 3ft. Per second, knock, wait 30 seconds, leave. Hawthorne Studies (1927) Hawthorne
How to design work environment to increase productivity? Productivity improved after each change and remained high even after work environment returned to normal. Follow up study found that workers restricted their effort.
– Systematically varied illumination, length of work pauses, duration of the workday, work week, etc. How To Explain Hawthorne’s Results? Results?
Productivity rose simply because workers enjoyed the extra attention and feelings of importance made them motivated. Productivity fell because workers worried that, because their work was studied, management planned to increase work expectations. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Herzberg’s
Asked workers two questions:
– Think about a time when felt good about your job. – Think about a time when you felt bad about your job. Hygiene factors: Salary, working cond. Motivator factors: Achievement, recognition responsibility. Hygiene factors prevent dissatisfaction, motivator factors increase satisfaction. Job Characteristics Theory
(Hackman & Oldham) (Hackman 5 core job characteristics. A job high on these factors is “enriched.” – Skill variety: Requires different activities to complete job and draws on different skills. – Task identity: Requires completion of a “whole” identifiable piece of work. – Task significance: Job is important and makes meaningful contribution to the organization. – Autonomy: Freedom, independence and discretion about how to carry out work. – Job feedback: Employee can obtain direct and clear feedback about quality of work. Job Characteristics Theory Job Case Example: Citibank Case
Job enrichment program.
– Before: Bank office employees each handled a different step in financial transactions. – Consequence: Dissatisfaction, boredom, errors, large backlog of work. – After enrichment: Each employees assigned to small group of customers and handled entire transaction. – Result: Work quality and motivation improved. Individual Difference Moderators Individual
The 5 core job characteristics do not effect everyone the same way.
– Growth need strength: People low on this dimension respond with anxiety. – Knowledge & skill: People who lack skill become frustrated in enriched jobs. – Basic satisfaction: When hygiene needs are satisfied, employees respond positively. Social Information Processing Approach (Salancik & Pfeffer) (Salancik
Individual needs, task perceptions and reactions are all socially constructed. Peers define what the critical aspects of the job are and how we respond to them.
– Empirical research found that both job characteristics and social information processing have significant, independent effects. Summary Summary
To motivate people you must consider: Person: Needs, personality traits. Situation: Job design, peer influences. Interaction: Highest level of motivation will result when people are assigned, based on their traits, to appropriate jobs. ...
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- Spring '07