ch16_ppt - Chapter 16 Intermolecular Forces Impact of...

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Chapter 16: Intermolecular Forces Impact of Intermolecular Forces  on Chemical Properties Liquids Solids
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The three states Solid Liquid Gas
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Forces Intramolecular Covalent bonds: 400 kJ/mole Ionic bonds: 250 kJ/mole Intermolecular Ion-dipole: 15 kJ/mole Dipole-dipole: 2 kJ/mole Hydrogen bonding: 10 kJ/mole Dipole-induced dipole: 1 kJ/mole London dispersion: 2 kJ/mole Big impact on chemical properties: melting points, boiling points, viscosity, etc.
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Potential Energy of interactions as a function of distance between the atoms Recall: E p = q 1 q 2 4 πε o r (potential energy of two ions) Ions Rotating dipoles Fixed dipoles Ions and dipoles
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Dipole moment u = 1.85 D Polarizability = 1.48 x 10 α -24 cm 3 δ - δ +
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Interaction between two ions: Recall: E p = q 1 q 2 4 π ε o r (Coulomb potential energy of two ions) 150 – 400 kJ/mol Na + Cl - r
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Ion-Dipole Interactions: Between polar molecules and ions Hydration of Na + Hydration of Cl -
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Ion-Dipole Potential Energy E P ~ - z u / r 2 z is charge on ion u is dipole moment of polar molecule r is distance of separation ~15 kJ/mole
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Dipole moment Polarizability ( α ) Ar 0 1.66 H 2 0 0.82 CO 2 0 2.63 H 2 O 1.85 1.48 NH 3 1.47 2.22 CH 4 0 2.60 CCl 4 0 10.5 C 6 H 6 0 10.4 Debyes 10 -24 cm 3
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A polar molecule Dipole-dipole interactions: Polar molecules interacting with other polar molecules Alignment of dipoles
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Dipole-dipole Interactions
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Example of dipole-dipole interactions: water
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Dipole Dipole Interactions: E P = - u 1 u 2 / r 3 Where u is the dipole moment of each species r is the separation distance 0.5 – 2 kJ/mole
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