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Unformatted text preview: Now on to quantum numbers Quantum Numbers PRINCIPAL: n energy level, the distance the orbital is from the nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4) ANGULAR MOMENTUM: l shape (s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3) MAGNETIC: m l spatial orientation (0 for s; 1, 0, +1 for p; 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 for d, etc.) SPIN: m s spin (+1/2 or 1/2) Review Atomic number = # electrons Electrons occupy orbitals defined by n, l , m Each orbital can hold two electrons Orbitals diffuse electron cloud lower energy electron closer to nucleus Outer electrons: valence most reactive The principal quantum number has the symbol n. n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...... shells (n = K, L, M, N, ......) The electrons energy depends principally on n . Quantum Numbers 1 2 3 Quantum Numbers The angular momentum quantum number has the symbol . = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......(n1) = s, p, d, f, g, h, .......(n1) tells us the shape of the orbitals. These orbitals are the volume around the atom that the electrons occupy 9095% of the time. Quantum Numbers The symbol for the magnetic quantum number is x y z Spin quantum number The last quantum number is the spin Spin of electron Spin quantum number effects: Every orbital can hold up to two electrons. Consequence of the Pauli Exclusion Principle. The two electrons are designated as having one spin up and one spin down Spin describes the direction of the electrons magnetic fields. ReCap: Quantum Numbers PRINCIPAL: n energy level, distance from nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4) ANGULAR MOMENTUM: l shape (s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3) MAGNETIC: m l spatial orientation (0 for s; 1, 0, +1 for p; 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 for d, etc.) SPIN: m s spin (+1/2 or 1/2) Atomic Orbitals: s, p, d, f Atomic orbitals are regions of space where the probability of finding an electron about an atom is highest....
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 Spring '07
 Fakhreddine/Lyon
 Chemistry, Nucleus

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