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Unformatted text preview: Now on to quantum numbers… Quantum Numbers • PRINCIPAL: n energy level, the distance the orbital is from the nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4…) • ANGULAR MOMENTUM: l shape (s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3) • MAGNETIC: m l spatial orientation (0 for s; 1, 0, +1 for p; 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 for d, etc.) • SPIN: m s spin (+1/2 or 1/2) Review • Atomic number = # electrons • Electrons occupy orbitals defined by n, l , m • Each orbital can hold two electrons • Orbitals diffuse electron cloud • “lower energy electron” closer to nucleus • Outer electrons: “valence” most reactive • The principal quantum number has the symbol n. n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ...... “shells” (n = K, L, M, N, ......) The electron’s energy depends principally on n . Quantum Numbers 1 2 3 Quantum Numbers • The angular momentum quantum number has the symbol . = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .......(n1) = s, p, d, f, g, h, .......(n1) tells us the shape of the orbitals. • These orbitals are the volume around the atom that the electrons occupy 9095% of the time. Quantum Numbers • The symbol for the magnetic quantum number is x y z Spin quantum number • The last quantum number is the spin Spin of electron • Spin quantum number effects: – Every orbital can hold up to two electrons. • Consequence of the Pauli Exclusion Principle. – The two electrons are designated as having – one spin up ↑ and one spin down ↓ • Spin describes the direction of the electron’s magnetic fields. ReCap: Quantum Numbers • PRINCIPAL: n energy level, distance from nucleus (1, 2, 3, 4…) • ANGULAR MOMENTUM: l shape (s = 0, p = 1, d = 2, f = 3) • MAGNETIC: m l spatial orientation (0 for s; 1, 0, +1 for p; 2, 1, 0, +1, +2 for d, etc.) • SPIN: m s spin (+1/2 or 1/2) Atomic Orbitals: s, p, d, f • Atomic orbitals are regions of space where the probability of finding an electron about an atom is highest....
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 Spring '07
 Fakhreddine/Lyon
 Chemistry, Nucleus, Atomic orbital, Principal quantum number

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