EMT_REF HO Session 6 2006

EMT_REF HO Session 6 2006 - Airway Management Anatomy and...

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Airway Management Anatomy and Function of the Respiratory System Oxygen: Essential for life Oropharynx: Posterior part of the mouth Nasopharynx: Posterior part of the nose Trachea: The windpipe Mandible: The lower jaw Esophagus: The food tube Airway: The passages from the openings of the mouth and nose to the air sacs in the lungs Bronchi: The two main branches of the windpipe Lungs: The organs that supply the body with oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide from the blood Alveoli: The air sacs of the lungs Capillaries: The smallest blood vessels where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place Breathing Inhalation (active) Exhalation (passive) Adequate Breathing Adults - 12-20/min. Children - 15-30/min.Infant - 25-50/min. Adequate Breathing Signs: Rhythm Usually regular Quality Breath sounds audible with stethoscope Depth - Chest expands Minimal effort Average adult moves 500cc air per breath Inadequate Breathing Rate - Outside normal range Rhythm - Regular or irregular
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Depth - Chest expansion shallow or unequal. Quality - Abnormal breath sounds (Noisy, diminished, or absent) NYS GUIDELINE Respiratory rate of less than 10 bpm with S&S of hypoxia, signs of poor perfusion need to ventilate with 100% oxygen ASAP Skin - Pale, cyanotic, cool, or clammy Retractions - Above clavicles, between & below ribs Agonal Respiration - Just before death Inadequate Breathing Infants & Children In addition to adult signs & symptoms Nasal flaring “See-saw” breathing Infant and child anatomy considerations Mouth and nose-in general, all structures are smaller and more easily obstructed than in adults. Pharynx-infant and children's tongues take up proportionally more space in the mouth than do adults'. Infants and children have narrower tracheas that are obstructed more easily by swelling. The trachea is softer and more flexible in infants and children. Cricoid cartilage-like other cartilage in the infant and child, the cricoid cartilage is less developed and less rigid. Diaphragm-chest wall is softer; infants and children tend to depend more heavily on the diaphragm for breathing. Signs of Adequate Ventilation Chest rises and falls Rate is about 10 - 12 for adults. Ventilate until chest rise over 1 second in duration Heart rate returns to normal Skin color may return to normal
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Rate for Infants & Children is about 20 Each ventilation should be sufficient to cause the chest to visibly rise without causing excessive gastric distension. Signs of Inadequate Ventilation Chest does not rise and fall. Ventilating too slowly or too fast Heart rate does not return to normal Airway An injured or seriously ill person is not able to protect the airway. Correct the Blocked Airway
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EMT_REF HO Session 6 2006 - Airway Management Anatomy and...

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