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Anthropology 2AC midterm review

Anthropology 2AC midterm review - Anthropology 2AC Midterm...

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Anthropology 2AC Midterm Review Page 1 Artifact: any manually portable product of human workmanship. In its broadest sense includes tools, weapons, ceremonial items, art objects, all industrial waste, and all floral and faunal remains modified by human activity. Ecofacts: non-artifactual organic and environmental remains which have cultural relevance, such as faunal and floral material as well as soils and sediments. Feature: a non-portable product of human workmanship. Usually clusters of associated objects, structural remains, hearths, etc. Matrix: the physical material within which artifacts are embedded or supported. Provenience: the horizontal and/or vertical position of an object in relation to a set of spatial coordinates. Stratigraphy: In archaeology, the study of stratigraphy involves looking at the geological and archaeological layers that make up an archaeological deposit to better understand the processes that created the site. Strata: a layer or a series of layers of rock in the ground Absolute dating: the determination of age with reference to a specific time scale, such as a fixed calendrical system, also referred to as chronometric dating. Relative dating: the determination of chronological sequence without recourse to a fixed time scale; such as the arrangement of artifacts in a typological sequence, or seriation. Radiocarbon dating: an absolute dating method based on the radioactive decay of Carbon-14 contained in organic materials. Seriation: a relative dating technique based on the chronological ordering of a group of artifacts or assemblages, where the most similar are placed adjacent to each other in the series. Two types of seriation can be recognized, frequency seriation and contextual seriation. Frequency seriation: a relative dating method which relies principally on measuring changes in the proportional abundance, or frequency, observed among finds (such as counts of tool types, or of ceramic fabrics). Stylistic seriation: the process of putting artifacts of the same type in order from oldest to newest.
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Classification: the ordering of phenomena into groups or other classificatory schemes on the basis of shared attributes Attribute: a minimal characteristic of an artifact such that it cannot be further subdivided; attributes commonly studied include aspects of form, style, decoration, color, and raw material. Hypothetico-deductive explanation: a form of explanation based on the formulation of hypotheses and the establishment from them by deduction of consequences which can then be tested against the archaeological data. NAGPRA: The Native American Graves Repatriation Act is one of the most important pieces of American legislation affecting archaeologists. Enacted into law in 1990 by George H.W. Bush, NAGPRA provides a process by which museums and other federal agencies use to return certain Native American human remains and grave goods to lineal descendants, and culturally affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations, if they can be determined.
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