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ch 11 cell signaling


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1 MULTICELLULARITY: CELL SIGNALING Lecture 19 10 October 2008 Multicellularity: Cell diversification acellular slime molds aggregation akinete boundary layer budding cellular slime molds cheaters Chemotaxis Chlamydomonas cyanobacteria cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) Dictyostelium dispersal ability division of labor Eudorina fruiting body functional differentiation germ cells Gonium heterocyst incomplete cytokinesis Myxobacteria nitrogen fixation Pandorina pleuripotent signaling proteins somatic cells soma spores stalk surface area-to-volume ratio vegetative cells Volvocales Volvox Last day to drop Online add/drop Just the facts Last day to register in New York
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2 Where were going 1. signals – local, global 2. reception – membrane, intracellular 3. transduction cascades 4. cellular responses – fast, slow Local signaling without secretion Nostoc sp. H Local signaling with secretion Paracrine signaling secretions of one cell change growth or development of target cells Synaptic transmission neurotransmitter released by nerve terminal causes muscle contraction or nerve-nerve signaling. Presynaptic nerve cell Postsynaptic cell synaptic cleft Global, long distance signaling endocrine signaling, hormones • Endocrine gland releases hormone into blood system • Target cell has hormone receptors on cell membrane or intracellular Effect of epinephrine on cells in liver and muscle Earl Sutherland, Nobel Prize 1971 epi R cAMP active enzyme * Observation: Increase in circulating epinephrine activates the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase to break down glycogen to glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P) Experiment 1: Combine epi + glycogen + glycogen phosphorylase => no G-1-P
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