ch 37 and 41 nutrient procurement

ch 37 and 41 nutrient procurement - " NUTRIENT...

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Unformatted text preview: !" NUTRIENT PROCUREMENT Lecture 23 Oct. 22, 2008 # $% ! & ' ' Come out and enhance your knowledge Come out and enhance your knowledge about the current healthcare system and about the current healthcare system and learn what the presidential candidates learn what the presidential candidates propose. propose. " Friday, October 24th RPCC MPR @ 4:45pm %( !) ) + , $ ! - ! * ) Visit the arthropod zoo! Bet on roach races! "Fish" for aquatic insects! Participate in insect art! Learn about: Mosquitoes and Disease How a bug's brain works Insects and Plants Insect Film Festival Where we're going 1. Plants essential nutrients 2. Plants - nitrogen fixation 3. Animals essential nutrients 4. Animals - guts 5. Animals - symbionts Nutrient Procurement in Plants 1 MACROnutrients (99.5% of dry mass) C O H CO2 COO H2O Organic compounds Organic compounds Organic compounds 45% 45% 6% C O H N MACROnutrients (99.5% of dry mass) CO2 COO H2O NO3K+ NH4+ Organic compounds Organic compounds Organic compounds Nucleic acids, proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, coenzymes Cofactor for protein synthesis, photosynthesis, stomata opening, water balance for all cells Cell signaling, cell wall, membrane structure, enzyme activation Chlorophyll, enzyme cofactor phospholipids, ATP, NADP 45% 45% 6% 1.5% What's missing ? K 1.0% Ca Mg P S Ca++ Mg++ 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% H2PO4- HPO42- Nucleic acids, membrane SO42Proteins, co-enzymes micro nutrients (99.5% of dry mass) 0.01 % 0.01 % 0.005 % 0.002 % 0.002 % <0.001% <0.001% <0.0001% What's missing ? Fe Cl Mn B Zn Cu Ni Mo Fe3+ Fe2+ Cytochromes, enzyme activation ClMn2+ H2BO3 Zn2+ Photosynthesis light reactions Cofactor, many enzymes Biosynthesis of chlorophyll, cell wall, nucleic acid synthesis Synthesis of chlorophyll and auxin activator of many enzymes Cu+ Cu2+ Structural element of many enzymes involved in oxidation. Plastocyanin Ni2+ MoO42Enzymes used to detoxify waste nitrogen Enzyme for reducing nitrate to nitrite, essential for N-fixation bacteria Sodium 2 Nitrogen Fixation Industrial process for reducing nitrogen to ammonia (Haber Process) N2 + 3H2 2NH3 G= -140.1 kJ/mole Nitrogen acquisition by plants (large activation energy. 500C 200 atm pressure) Biological nitrogen fixation by diazotrophs (anaerobic Bacteria & Archaea: Azotobacter sp., Klebsiella sp.) N2 + 8 H+ + 8 e- + 16 ATP 2 NH3 + 16 ADP + 16 Pi + H2 [enzyme complex is nitrogenase, plus cofactors Fe, Mo] Nitrogen acquisition by plants Nitrogen cycle Root nodules on legumes soybean roots Rhizobium bacterioids within vesicle 5 m anaerobic root nodules with Rhizobium Roots Soybean nodules contain leghemoglobin It binds O2 and acts as a buffer keeping O2 away from nitrogenase, but available for bacterial respiration to make ATP Formation of a root nodule requires communication Legume Infection 2. Rhizobia chemically leghemoglobin stimulate root hair to elongate and produce infection thread. Hb 3 Mycorrhizae = fungi + roots Ectomycorrhizae form dense sheath, extracellular Epidermis Cortex Mantle (fungal sheath) 100 m Oddball Nutritional Adaptations in Plants EPIPHYTES use host for physical support Staghorn fern, an epiphyte Endodermis Dodder, a nonphotosynthetic parasite Host's phloem Dodder Haustoria Mantle (fungal sheath) Fungal hyphae between cortical cells PARASITIC PLANTS obtain nutrients from host or host's mycorrhizae (colorized SEM) Endomycorrhizae ("arbuscular mycorrhizae") penetrate only cell wall Epidermis Cortex Cortical cells 10 m Mistletoe, a photosynthetic parasite Indian pipe, a nonphotosynthetic parasite Endodermis Fungal hyphae Vesicle Casparian strip Root hair CARNIVOROUS PLANTS nitrogen poor soils, e.g., bogs Arbuscules Arbuscules Venus' flytrap (LM, stained specimen) Pitcher plants Sundews Clicker question A dried piece of firewood weighs 5 kg. Where does most of the weight of the wood come from? A) B) C) D) E) inorganic minerals in soil rain water on leaves organic compounds in soil ground water air Animal feeding modes predator filter feeder grazer scavenger Animals obtain all nutrients from food, (except water* and O2) any help in learning these little molecules proves truly valuable 12 NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS arginine* histidine* asparagine aspartate cysteine glutamate glutamine glycine proline serine tyrosine alanine Essential amino acids can not be synthesized by animals and must be obtained from food, especially legumes and grains....or other animals that ate legumes and grains 8 ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS isoleucine lysine threonine leucine methionine phenylalanine tryptophan valine nonpolar basic polar nonpolar nonpolar nonpolar nonpolar nonpolar C: carbohydrates, lipids, protein Essential amino acids. Essential fatty acids Vitamins Minerals 4 Essential amino acids for adults Methionine Valine Threonine Phenylalanine Leucine Corn (maize) and other grains Isoleucine Tryptophan Lysine Beans and other legumes Essential fatty acids certain unsaturated FAs Alpha linolenic acid Linoleic acid alpha linolenic acid (omega 3) linoleic acid (omega 6) Vitamins Required organic molecules (small quantities) 9 water soluble 4 fat soluble Water soluble vitamins Vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy Fat soluble vitamins , skin cells scurvy gingivitis precursor Vitamin C ascorbic acid James Lind, 1753, surgeon in British Royal Navy Vitamin A 5 Stages of gut evolution 1. phagocytosis, e.g. Cnidaria 2. blind sac, e.g., flatworms A schematic diagram of the human digestive system Salivary glands Mouth Esophagus Different compartments perform different functions Ingestion Specialized tissues secrete compounds to aid digestion Gallbladder 3. flow through gut, e.g., nematodes and higher Digestion (coarse) Stomach Small intestines Large intestines Rectum Anus Liver Pancreas Digestion (fine) Absorption Elimination Different macromolecules are broken down in different areas by specific enzymes Carbohydrate digestion Oral cavity, Polysaccharides Disaccharides pharynx, Salivary amylase esophagus Smaller polysaccharides, maltose Stomach Proteins Pepsin Protein digestion Nucleic acid digestion Fat digestion Increased surface area improves absorption of nutrients Small polypeptides Lumen of Polysaccharides small intesPancreatic amylases tine Maltose and other disaccharides Polypeptides Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin DNA, RNA Pancreatic nucleases Fat globules Bile salts Smaller polypeptides Nucleotides Pancreatic carboxypeptidase Fat droplets Pancreatic lipase Amino acids Epithelium of small intestine (brush border) Small peptides Disaccharidases Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase Nucleotidases Glycerol, fatty acids, glycerides Nucleosides Nucleosidases and phosphatases root hairs + mycorrhizae human small intestine brush border Monosaccharides Amino acids Nitrogenous bases, sugars, phosphates Monomers or component molecules get absorbed by brush border epithelium gut symbionts provide critical nutrients for many animals Humans have rich gut microbiota Bacteroides sp. degrade polysaccharides E. coli provide Vitamin K Strangers within: Next up Transport in plants Ruminants with gut biota to break down cellulose Aphids suck nutrient poor phloem sap symbionts provide sterols 6 ...
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