Chapter4&5Sum07

Chapter4&5Sum07 - Cell Structure Chapter 4 Cell Structure...

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Cell Structure Cell Structure Chapter 4
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Why is it unlikely that a paramecium will grow to the size of a person?
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Surface-to-volume ratio
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Structure of Cells All start out life with: Plasma membrane Region where DNA is stored Cytoplasm Two types: Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
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Galileo - First to study life under a microscope Mid 1600s - Robert Hooke observed and described cells in cork 1820s - Robert Brown observed and named nucleus in plant cells 1830s – Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow observed that cells have a life of their own Early Discoveries
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Cell Theory Every organism made up of one or more cells Cell is smallest unit displaying properties of life Single cells grow and divide giving rise to new cells
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Observations of cells Hooke’s microscope Galileo Galiliei
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Fig. 4-8, p.55 Light micrograph Light micrograph Transmission (TEM) Scanning (SEM)
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Cheek cell (LM)
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Lipid Bilayer Main component of cell membranes Gives the membrane its fluid properties Two layers of phospholipids
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receptor proteins recognition proteins passive transporters active transporters Fig. 4-10, p.57 Fluid Mosaic Model
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Fluid Mosaic Model Membrane is a mosaic of Phospholipids Glycolipids Sterols Proteins Most phospholipids and some proteins can drift through membrane
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Prokaryotic Cells E. coli
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Prokaryotic Cells Small, simple, unicellular Lack a nucleus Coiled DNA, no membrane Prokaryotic cell wall, some have a capsule Flagella, some stick No cytoskeleton aerobic or anaerobic fission
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A prokaryotic cell is enclosed by a plasma membrane and is usually encased in a rigid cell wall Ribosomes Figure 4.4 Capsule Cell wall Plasma membrane Prokaryotic flagella Nucleoid region (DNA) Pili
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DNA cytoplasm plasma membrane Bacterial cell (prokaryotic) Fig. 4-2a, p.52
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Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium carried by ticks Some bacteria cause disease Figure 16.14A, B Borrelia burgdorferi
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The species that causes anthrax can be used as a biological weapon in war or in acts of terrorism Bacteria can be used as biological weapons Figure 16.16
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Archaebacteria
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Archaea Figure 16.11A, B 1. Extreme halo philes live in high salt environments 2. Extreme therm ophiles live in high heat environments
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Archaea 3. Methan ogens live in environments with low oxygen and give off methane.
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Plant cell (eukaryotic) Fig. 4-2b, p.52 Animal cell (eukaryotic) plasma membrane cytoplasm DNA in nucleus
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An animal cell: Plasma membrane Figure 4.5A Golgi apparatus Ribosomes Nucleus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion Not in most plant cells Cytoskeleton Flagellum Lysosome Centriole Microtubule Intermediate filament Microfilament
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Figure 4.5B Nucleus Golgi apparatus Not in animal cells Central vacuole Chloroplast Cell wall Mitochondrion Peroxisome Plasma membrane Rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Cytoskeleton Microtubule Intermediate filament Microfilament A Plant Cell:
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Keeps the DNA molecules separated from metabolic machinery of cytoplasm Makes it easier to organize DNA and to copy it before parent cells divide into daughter cells Functions of Nucleus
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Eukaryotic Nucleus Nuclear membrane
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