Chapter8&9Sum07 - How Cells Reproduce Chapter 8 Amoeba...

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How Cells Reproduce Chapter 8
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Amoeba dividing Asexual or sexual reproduction?
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Asexual Reproduction Single-celled protists Plants Animals Fungi Bacteria Archaea fission
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Binary fission of a prokaryotic cell Prokaryotic chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Duplication of chromosome and separation of copies Continued growth of the cell and movement of copies Division into two cells
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Eukaryotic cell division Mitosis chromosomes divide and result in 2 daughter nuclei. Cytokinesis – cytoplasm divides in two. Production of two genetically identical daughter cells
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Roles of Mitosis Growth Cell replacement Asexual reproduction
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Sister chromatids Chromosome duplication Chromosome distribution to daughter cells Centromere joins sister chromatids. (kinetochore of each sister chromatid is within this region) Sister chromatids
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Organization of Chromosomes DNA and proteins arranged as cylindrical fiber DNA histone one nucleosome A nucleosome consists of part of a DNA molecule looped twice around a core of histone proteins
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DNA fragments
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The cell cycle consists of two major phases: Interphase, where chromosomes duplicate and cell parts are made The mitotic phase, when cell division occurs
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mitosis, cytoplasmic division a Two of the chromosomes (unduplicated) in a parent cell at interphase b The same two chromosomes, now duplicated, in that cell at interphase, prior to mitosis c Two chromosomes (unduplicated) in the parent cell’s daughter cells, which both start life in interphase Fig. 8-5b, p.129
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Stages of Mitosis (after Interphase) Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
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Interphase 1. Distinct nucleus
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Interphase 1.Distinct nucleus 2.Chromosomes become duplicated (double- stranded)
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Interphase 1.Distinct nucleus 2.Chromosomes duplicated 3.Centrioles-together outside nucleus
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Interphase
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Prophase 1. Centrioles move toward opposite poles 2. Spindle fibers form 3. Chromosomes condense 4. Nucleoli disappear 5. Nuclear membrane breaks down 6. Chromosomes move toward center Prophase
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