Chapter12&13Sum07_1

Chapter12&13Sum07_1 - If an individual has the genotype...

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If an individual has the genotype XXY, did non-disjunction occur in their mother or their father (or both) and at which division(s), meiosis I or meiosis II? Try to do this for Tuesday!
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Answer: Non-disjunction in the mother at either meiosis can lead to an XXY child. Non-disjunction in the father, but only if it occurs at meiosis I, can lead to an XXY child. See the following slides for illustrations…
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X Y Non-disjunction at Meiosis I (homologs don’t separate) Sister chromatids still separate normally at MII XY sperm: fertilized by a normal egg (X) XXY In father, non-disjunction at Meiosis I can lead to an XXY child:
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X Y (homologs separate normally) Sister X chromatids don’t separate XX sperm: fertilized by a normal egg (X) XXX In father, non-disjunction at Meiosis II DOES NOT lead to an XXY child: YY sperm: fertilized by a normal egg (X) XYY OR sister Y chromatids don’t separate:
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X Non-disjunction at Meiosis I (homologs don’t separate) Sister chromatids still separate normally at MII XX eggs: fertilized by a normal sperm (X or Y) XXX or XXY In mother, non-disjunction at Meiosis I can lead to an XXY child: X
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X X (homologs separate normally) Sister X chromatids don’t separate XX eggs: fertilized by a normal sperm (X or Y) XXX or XXY In mother, non-disjunction at Meiosis II can lead to an XXY child: Normal gametes
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Chapter 12 DNA Structure
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Fred Griffith’s experiment (1928) (He used two types of bacteria) What happened in # 4? Maybe S cells don’t really die when they are heat-killed? No, because experiment 3 controls for this. Conclusion: Genetic material does not get destroyed when S cells are heat killed. Some of the genetic material is transferred to the harmless live R cells and they become virulent.
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Avery, MacLeod, McCarty- 1944 +DNAse Mice don’t die! DNAse treatment (destroys DNA) and not proteins. Conclusion: the genetic material transferred is DNA
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Figure 10.1A (Bacterio)Phage T2 Phage: consists only of DNA and proteins DNA Protein
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Phage reproductive cycle Figure 10.1C Phage attaches to bacterial cell. Phage injects DNA. Phage DNA directs host cell to make more phage parts. New phages assemble. Cell lyses and releases new phages.
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The Hershey-Chase Experiment Figure 10.1B Mix radioactively labeled phages with bacteria. The phages infect the bacterial cells. Phage Bacterium Radioactive protein DNA Empty protein shell 1 2 Agitate in a blender to separate phages outside the bacteria from the cells and their contents. 3
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Chapter12&13Sum07_1 - If an individual has the genotype...

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