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Chapter16Sum07

Chapter16Sum07 - Natural Sel ecti on Chapter 16 Early...

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Natural Selection Chapter 16
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Early beliefs: All species were created at one time and have not changed since There was spontaneous generation (non-living things gave rise to living organisms)
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Refuting evidence: Fossils of animals no longer alive Earth older and bigger than once thought Pasteur and others refuted spontaneous generation
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More evidence for Evolution Geographic distribution Vestigial organs - serve no apparent purpose (pelvic bones in whales and snakes) Similar stages in embryonic development Comparative anatomy Universality of the genetic code
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Hemoglobin comparisons between humans and vertebrates 8 amino acid difference
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A look at some individuals who influenced the ideas of evolution…
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Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) He assigned the two- part Latin names for genus and species. He tried to make sense of diversity by classifying organisms using the two-part name.
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Scarus gibbus – Sheephead parrotfish genus
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Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Scottish geologist who wrote Principles of Geology. He helped make popular the idea that the earth was not static. He inspired Charles Darwin- "I really think my books come half out of Lyell's brain," said Charles Darwin, "I see through his eyes."
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Sedimentary sandstone
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Baron Georges Cuvier (1769- 1832) Credited as the inventor of comparative anatomy (the detailed comparison of anatomies of different species) and paleontology (study of fossils.) Realized through fossils that species died in natural disasters.
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Petrified forest in Arizona – 200 MYA
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Jean Lamarck (1744-1829) Believed species changed over time until they were perfect. Known for his theory, inheritance of acquired characteristics .
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Lamarck’s Evolution Species evolve Inheritance of acquired characteristics (use and disuse of parts) Driven by a Creative force
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Thomas Malthus (1766- 1834) Economist who greatly influenced Darwin by concluding that resources were limited and the human population could not grow exponentially and compete for these limited resources. Poverty, famine, war, and disease were all population checks on the human population. Darwin – if variation in an individual, however slight, is in any way profitable under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, he will have a better chance of surviving and thus be naturally selected .”
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Alfred Wallace (1823- 1913) During a severe attack of malaria in the Moluccas, Wallace thought of the idea of the survival of the fittest. He independently
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