Chapter27Sum07

Chapter27Sum07 - Alternation of generations The plant life...

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Alternation of generations The plant life cycle alternates between diploid (2 n ) and haploid ( n ) generations Double fertilization is unique to plants Flowering plants reproduce in drier places so haploid stages depend on diploid parent
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Flower anatomy The angiosperm flower is a reproductive shoot consisting of sepals petals stamen carpels
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Flower components Male and female parts – produce gametes Sterile parts – attract pollinators Perfect flower – male and female gametes produced in same flower Imperfect flower – either male or female flower
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Imperfect flower – Kiwi plants Male Female
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Humans and animals can be pollinators
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Coevolution of flowers and insect pollinators has produced diverse adaptations Human vision Bee vision Butterfly vision Daylight UV light UV light
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Devil’s Tongue This plant grows one petal a year. The flower can grow up to 6 feet tall.
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Amorphophallus titanum –– world’s largest flower What kind of pollinator does this flower attract?
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Angiosperm life cycle
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Of 4 haploid spores, one becomes the embryo sac and the rest degenerate. The egg is a cell within the sac. Tube cell and generative cell form from spore Generative cell divides to form 2 sperm
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Diploid sporophyte cell in anther meiosis Four haploid microspores mitosis Pollen grains (two celled body with haploid nuclei) = male gametophyte
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Diploid sporophyte cell in ovule meiosis Four haploid megaspores Three disintegrate X X X Three rounds of mitosis without cytoplasmic division Cytoplasmic divisions 7-celled female gametophyte Egg (n) Endosperm mother cell (n+n)
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Pollen sacs on anther split open to release pollen grains
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White Birch with pollen cloud
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Pollen grain consists of two cells – tube cell and generative cell The male gametophyte is the generative cell Pollen grains like those from ragweed can cause allergies in some people
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Pollination and Fertilization Pollination triggers hormonal changes that cause the ovary to grow
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Male gametophyte – haploid pollen grain
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Double fertilization
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These cells push embryo into endosperm and anchor embryo to seed Seed formation
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Comparison of monocot and dicot seeds
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Fruit development Mature or ripened ovary
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In the pea the wall of the ovary becomes the pod The ovules develop into the seeds
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The small, threadlike structure at the end of the pod is what remains of the upper part of the flower's carpel The sepals of the flower stay attached to the base of the green pod Upper part of carpel Ovule Ovary wall Sepal Seed Pod (opened) Figure 31.12B
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1. simple – from one ovary of a single flower
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Chapter27Sum07 - Alternation of generations The plant life...

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