Chapter27Sum07 - Alternation of generations The plant life...

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Alternation of generations The plant life cycle alternates between diploid (2 n ) and haploid ( n ) generations Double fertilization is unique to plants Flowering plants reproduce in drier places so haploid stages depend on diploid parent
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Flower anatomy The angiosperm flower is a reproductive shoot consisting of sepals petals stamen carpels
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Flower components Male and female parts – produce gametes Sterile parts – attract pollinators Perfect flower – male and female gametes produced in same flower Imperfect flower – either male or female flower
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Imperfect flower – Kiwi plants Male Female
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Humans and animals can be pollinators
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Coevolution of flowers and insect pollinators has produced diverse adaptations Human vision Bee vision Butterfly vision Daylight UV light UV light
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Devil’s Tongue This plant grows one petal a year. The flower can grow up to 6 feet tall.
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Amorphophallus titanum –– world’s largest flower What kind of pollinator does this flower attract?
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Angiosperm life cycle
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Of 4 haploid spores, one becomes the embryo sac and the rest degenerate. The egg is a cell within the sac. Tube cell and generative cell form from spore Generative cell divides to form 2 sperm
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Diploid sporophyte cell in anther meiosis Four haploid microspores mitosis Pollen grains (two celled body with haploid nuclei) = male gametophyte
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Diploid sporophyte cell in ovule meiosis Four haploid megaspores Three disintegrate X X X Three rounds of mitosis without cytoplasmic division Cytoplasmic divisions 7-celled female gametophyte Egg (n) Endosperm mother cell (n+n)
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Pollen sacs on anther split open to release pollen grains
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White Birch with pollen cloud
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Pollen grain consists of two cells – tube cell and generative cell The male gametophyte is the generative cell Pollen grains like those from ragweed can cause allergies in some people
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Pollination and Fertilization Pollination triggers hormonal changes that cause the ovary to grow
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Male gametophyte – haploid pollen grain
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Double fertilization
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These cells push embryo into endosperm and anchor embryo to seed Seed formation
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