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Chapter33Sum07(2)

Chapter33Sum07(2) - Test 3 Average = 67 Several types of...

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Test 3 Average = 67
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In cnidarians and flatworms, the gastrovascular cavity functions in both digestion internal transport Several types of internal transport have evolved in animals Figure 23.2A Mouth Circular canal
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Fig. 33-2b, p.552 spaces or cavities in body tissues pump Open circulatory system:
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Fig. 33-2a1, p.552
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Fig. 33-2a2, p.552 aorta heart The open circulatory system: no difference between interstitial fluid and blood.
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Fig. 33-2d, p.552 large-diameter blood vessels (rapid flow) large-diameter blood vessels (rapid flow) small-diameter blood vessels (leisurely flow in diffusion zone) pump Closed circulatory system: “internal sea” evolved
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Fig. 33-2c2, p.552 dorsal blood vessel two of five hearts ventral blood vessels gut cavity Blood is distinct from interstitial fluid in a closed circulatory system:
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Fig. 33-3a, p.553 capillary beds of gills heart rest of body In fishes, a two-chambered heart (atrium, ventricle) pumps blood in one circuit . Blood picks up oxygen in gills, delivers it to rest of body. Oxygen-poor blood flows back to heart. atrium ventricle
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Closed systems: A heart pumps blood through arteries and capillary beds The blood returns to the heart via veins Figure 23.2C Artery (O 2 -rich blood) Arteriole Capillary beds Venule Vein Atrium Ventricle Heart Artery (O 2 -poor blood) Gill capillaries
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Fig. 33-3b, p.553 right atrium left atrium heart rest of body lungs In amphibians, a heart pumps blood through two partially separate circuits . Blood flows to lungs, picks up oxygen, returns to heart. But it mixes with oxygen-poor blood still in the heart, flows to rest of body, returns to heart. MORE EFFICIENT THAN ONE CIRCUIT! one ventricle
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Fig. 33-3c, p.553 rest of body lungs right atrium left atrium right ventricle left ventricle In birds and mammals, the heart is fully partitioned into two halves. Blood circulates in two circuits : from the heart’s right half to lungs and back, then from the heart’s left half to oxygen-requiring tissues and back. Pulmonary circuit Systemic circuit MOST EFFICIENT!
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Plasma is an aqueous solution of various substances STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF BLOOD
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Average person has 5-6 liters of blood
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Figure 23.14 Red blood cells contain hemoglobin Hemoglobin enables the transport of O 2 More than 2 million red blood cells (erythrocytes) die every second
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Origination of blood cells Stem cells – red blood cells and forerunners of the leukocytes Stem cells - megakaryocytes
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Figure 23.15 White blood cells (leukocytes) function both inside and outside the circulatory system They fight infections and cancer Basophil Neutrophil Monocyte Eosinophil Lymphocyte
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Blood Disorders Anemias - Too few red blood cells or deformed ones Polycythemias - Too many red cells Mononucleosis - Too many monocytes and lymphocytes Leukemias - Cancer suppresses white cell formation
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ABO and Transfusions
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