Chapter40Sum07

Chapter40Sum07 - A What kind of interaction is displayed...

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A What kind of interaction is displayed here?
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1. Organism - red ant 2. Population ecology - how does the red ant population rise and fall throughout the year in the desert? 3. Community ecology- how does the red ant species compete for resources with the black ant species? 4. Ecosystem ecology how does sand temperature affect reproduction in various desert ant species? http://www.uni-koeln.de/ew-fak/bio/red_ant.gif 5. Biosphere ecology- How is global warming affecting ant diversity in the southeast U.S.?
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1934 – G.F. Gause’s experiments on interspecific competition Species 1 Provide a constant amount of food and a stable environment Population reaches carrying capacity and stabilizes
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1934 – G.F. Gause’s experiments on interspecific competition Species 2 Provide a constant amount of food and a stable environment Population reaches carrying capacity and stabilizes
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1934 – G.F. Gause’s experiments on interspecific competition Provide a constant amount of food and a stable environment Species 2 uses resources more efficiently and outcompetes species 1
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The competitive exclusion principle Populations of two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are nearly identical
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Interspecific competition A population's niche is the sum total of its use of resources of its habitat Community structure Niche : everything an organism does and needs in its community
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Interference competition Broadtailed and rufous hummingbirds
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Potential results of competition One species may disappear from the area Natural selection may cause character (trait) divergence: can lead to habitat or resource partitioning (beak size diversity in finches)
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Community interactions The most important community interactions are: - competition - predation - parasitism - mutualism Symbiosis
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Predation is an interaction where one species eats another Parasitism can be considered a form of predation Predation maintains diversity in a community Density dependent control
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Adaptation to predation in plants Toxic chemicals – poisons Spines, thorns Hormone imitating chemicals – cause abnormal development in insects Coevolution
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Cyanide repellent
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As predators adapt to prey, sometimes natural selection also shapes the prey's defenses This process of reciprocal adaptation is known as coevolution Example: Heliconius and the passionflower vine Figure 36.3A Eggs Sugar deposits
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2009 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Hogan during the Summer '08 term at UNC.

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Chapter40Sum07 - A What kind of interaction is displayed...

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