Chapter 16-1

Chapter 16-1 - CHEM 262 Wei You Chapter 16. Aldehydes and...

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1 CHEM 262 Wei You Chapter 16. Aldehydes and Ketones (1)
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2 In this and several following chapters, we study the physical and chemical properties of classes of compounds containing the carbonyl group, C=O aldehydes and ketones (Chapter 16) carboxylic acids (Chapter 17) acid halides, acid anhydrides, esters, amides (Chapter 18) enolate anions (Chapter 19) The Carbonyl Group
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3 The Carbonyl Group the carbonyl group consists of one sigma bond formed by the overlap of sp 2 hybrid orbitals and one pi bond formed by the overlap of parallel 2 p orbitals pi bonding and pi antibonding MOs for formaldehyde
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4 Structure the functional group of an aldehyde is a carbonyl group bonded to a H atom and a carbon atom the functional group of a ketone is a carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms Propanone (Acetone) Ethanal (Acetaldehyde) Methanal (Formaldehyde) O O O CH 3 CH HCH CH 3 CCH 3
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5 Nomenclature:Compounds with C=O Group IUPAC names: the parent chain is the longest chain that contains the C=O functional group for an aldehyde, change the suffix from -e to -al for an unsaturated aldehyde, change the infix from -an- to -en- ; the location of the suffix determines the numbering pattern for a cyclic molecule in which -CHO is bonded to the ring, add the suffix - carbaldehyde
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6 Nomenclature: Aldehydes the common names benzaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde, as well formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are IUPAC-accepted names H O 3-Methylbutanal 2-Propenal (Acrolein) (2 E )-3,7-Dimethyl-2,6-octadienal (Geranial) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 H O H O CHO HO CHO Cyclopentane- carbaldehyde trans -4-Hydroxycyclo- hexanecarbaldehyde 1 4  CHO C 6 H 5 CHO trans -3-Phenyl-2-propenal (Cinnamaldehyde) Benzaldehyde
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Chapter 16-1 - CHEM 262 Wei You Chapter 16. Aldehydes and...

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