Chapter 17-1 - CHEM 262 Wei You Chapter 17 Carboxylic...

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CHEM 262 Wei You Chapter 17. Carboxylic Acids (1)
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The functional group of a carboxylic acid is a carboxyl group the general formula for an aliphatic carboxylic acid is RCOOH; that for an aromatic carboxylic acid is ArCOOH COOH CO 2 H O O H C O O H Alternative representations for a carboxyl group Structure
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IUPAC names: drop the -e from the parent alkane and add the suffix -oic acid if the compound contains a carbon-carbon double bond, change the infix -an- to -en- HCOOH CH 3 COOH 3-Methylbutanoic acid (Isovaleric acid) Ethanoic acid (Acetic acid) Methanoic acid (Formic acid) OH O Propenoic acid (Acrylic acid) trans- 3-Phenylpropenoic acid (Cinnamic acid) trans- 2-Butenoic acid (Crotonic acid) OH O OH O OH O Nomenclature - IUPAC
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dicarboxylic acids: add the suffix -dioic acid to the name of the parent alkane containing two carboxyl groups HO OH O Propanedioic acid (Malonic acid) Ethanedioic acid (Oxalic acid) O HO OH O O Hexanedioic acid (Adipic acid) Pentanedioic acid (Glutaric acid) Butanedioic acid (Succinic acid) O OH O HO OH O HO O HO OH O O Nomenclature - IUPAC
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if the carboxyl group is bonded to a ring, name the ring compound and add the suffix -carboxylic acid Use numbers to show the location of substituents
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