psychchap7-9 - Chapters 7, 8 and 11 (Test 3 Material)...

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Chapters 7, 8 and 11 (Test 3 Material) Chapter 7 Memory Encoding: involves forming a memory code (how it looks, sounds, or what it means (semantic)). Storage: maintaining encoded information in memory over time. Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores. I. The Role of Attention a. Involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events; selection of input. II. Levels of Processing a. Craik and Lockhart argue that different rates of forgetting occur because some methods of encoding create more durable memory codes than others. i. They propose that incoming info can be processed at different levels. ii. State that in verbal processing, humans engage in 3 progressively deeper levels of processing: 1. structural 2. phonemic 3. semantic encoding iii. Their theory is known as the Levels-of-Processing Theory; it proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes. III. Enriching Encoding a. elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding; often consists of thinking of examples that illustrate an idea. b. visual imagery: the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered. i. Allan Paivio points out that it is easier to form images of concrete objects (juggler) than of abstract concepts (truth). 1. Paivio’s dual-coding theory-holds that memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall. IV. Sensory Memory a. Preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second. b. Gives you additional time to try to recognize stimuli. c. Length of memory trace in sensory stores i. visual/auditory-decays in ~1/4 second. V. Short-Term Memory a. A limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds. b. By engaging in rehearsal-the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about info-things can be stored in STM for longer. c. Capacity of Storage: Helps to chunk-put familiar stimuli into one group for storage.
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i. To chunk info, the familiarity between the “stuff” must be stored somewhere in long-term memory. d. STM as working memory i. Baddeley’s model of working memory ii. Consists of: 1. Phonological loop-at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone #. 2.
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psychchap7-9 - Chapters 7, 8 and 11 (Test 3 Material)...

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