Bio350Chapters1and18 Outline - Chapter 1 Outline I amino...

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Chapter 1 Outline I. amino acids: the most important building blocks for the complex molecules needed for life to exist (proteins). II. hypothermal vents: where the chemical reactions necessary to construct complex molecules may have taken place; location where heated water is vented through the seafloor. This water is seawater that has percolated down through fractures in recently formed ocean floor and has been heated by underlying magma. Most known vents are near the central axis of oceanic ridges and rises. III. chemosynthetic: uses the oxidation of substances to form organic compounds. IV. photosynthetic: uses light to produce food. V. respiration: using oxygen obtained from the environment; uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. VI. steady state: maintaining the same chemical composition VII. invertebrates: ex. sponges Chapter 18 Outline VIII. Biological Resources a. Seafood: very high protein content and is of critical dietary importance. i. Overfishing is deemed a far greater threat than the oil spills or industrial and domestic sewage discharges that often dominate media coverage of the oceans. ii. If unchecked, the continuous increase in fishing effort and effectiveness quickly leads to a collapse of the fish population as the maximum sustainable yield is exceeded.
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iii. Fishing can have adverse effects on marine species even if they are not the target of the fishing and not dependent on the target species for food (bycatches). iv. Safe management requires that substantially less than the estimated maximum sustainable yield be caught each year to guard against errors inherent in the stock assessment data and against the inevitable years when stocks decline unexpectedly because of natural factors. However, setting the catch “too low” would mean lost income and possibly jobs for fishers, as well as “wasting” of some of the resource value. v. Human activities have polluted coastal waters, i.e. estuaries, rivers, and wetlands. vi. Large quantities of fishing gear and discharged oil, diesel fuel, oily bilge waters, sewage and food/packaging wastes from vessels have adverse affects on marine organisms. IX. Genetic Diversity in the Ocean a. Marine species are an important pool of genetic diversity. i. Development of biochemical methods to protect against predators, parasites, and diseases and of detoxifying or destroying toxic chemicals. ii. Major potential resource for development of pharmaceutical drugs iii. Major potential resource for development of pollution control methods. b. Location of Greatest Biodiversity: Coral Reefs i. Coral reefs are synonymous to tropical rain forests of the oceans. ii. Extremely high species diversity
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X. The Effects of Transportation, Trade, and Military Use on the Ocean a. Dredging damages benthos at the dredging site.
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