7.1-7.3 - Yuri Balashov, PHIL 2500 Lecture Notes...

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Yuri Balashov, PHIL 2500 Lecture Notes 1 Introduction to PL Again: formal versus natural languages: e.g., English versus SL The problem of expressive power If Mary is in Paris she is in France. P F Mary is not in France. ~ F ---------------------------- ------ She is not in Paris. ~ P Valid in English Valid in SL Every human being is mortal. E Socrates is a human being. H ------------------------------------ ---- Socrates is mortal. M Valid in English Invalid in SL Diagnosis: The language of SL is too course-grained . In taking sentences as the smallest linguistic units, it makes all subsentential relationships invisible . In particular, SL does not allow us to unpack the fine structure of such sentences as ‘Every human being is mortal’, ‘Socrates is a human being’ and ‘Socrates is mortal’ and see the connection among them: that the third one follows (intuitively) from the first two. Treatment: We need a more fine-grained formal language that would allow us to “get inside” a sentence and “probe” its internal structure.
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Yuri Balashov, PHIL 2500 Lecture Notes 2 Main elements of the subsentential structure of English: Singular terms Quantity terms Predicates Singular terms Proper names: ‘Dubya’, ‘Peabody Hall’, ‘2’
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7.1-7.3 - Yuri Balashov, PHIL 2500 Lecture Notes...

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