European Responses to Islam and Christian Heresies

European Responses to Islam and Christian Heresies -...

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European Responses to Islam and Christian Heresies The Crusades can be seen as an outgrowth of the high middle ages (cultural optimism, fusion of faith and reason) Crusades express the same kind of optimism in a military way vs. the intellectual ways of the past Religious confidence that god is on the side of the Christians Part of religious reform & influence of Popes Order and Hierarchy The idea of "papal monarchy" -popes should have power like a king (they should be the ultimate king) -most powerful political and religious leaders -the part of the way the religious elite in Europe inspired to have military and religious influence -Pope Innocent -defined the Muslims as the great enemy of the Christians Demanded military action against them -developed bc of an assault on heresies in Europe Pope's relation to the kings -monarch's challenge papal power -lay investiture (kings appoint church leaders) -simony: kings sell church offices The kings began to make claims that they should control the legal
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