ANTH chart - Name Gracile australopithecines anamensis When...

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Name When Where Material Culture Anatomy Culture Gracile australopithecines anamensis 4.2 to 3.9 mya East Africa (lake Turkana and Kenya) Bipedal and arboreal, large canines, molars with thick enamel, no parabolic dental arch Gracile australopithecines afarensis (lucy) 3.7 to 3.0 mya East Africa (hadar Ethiopia and Laetoli, Tanzania) Bipedal and arboreal, large pointed canines (ape-like), large molars for chewing, extreme sexual dimorphism Gracile australopithecines africanus 3.0? to 2.0? mya South, maybe east Africa A. garhi (variant or new species perhaps?: primitive tools) (2.5 mya) Less “ape” like, more human like dentition Meat (scavengers) and veggies ((not culture example)) Robustus australiopithecines A. aethiopicus Still small brain size, very slanted facial structure, much enamel, sagittal crest Robustus australiopithecines A. robustus 2.0? to 1.0? (1.4) mya East africa Bigger brain size, less slanted face, sagittal crest Robustus australiopithecines A. boisei 2.6? to 1.0 mya Near Kenyan border
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Unformatted text preview: Huge brow ridge, huge skull, thick jaw, a little smaller brain size, sagittal crest Name When Where Material culture Anatomy Culture? Homo habilis 2.0 to 1.7 mya Africa Oldowan tool culture tradition (rocks modify) Large brain, relatively gracile, prominent brow ridge, generalized teeth Homo erectus 1.8 mya to 40 kya Africa, Asia, SE Europe Very adaptive generalized, Acheulian tool tradition (hand axe), fire Larger brain (lower end of modern normal), thick skill, prominent brow ridge, very muscular, relatively flat chinless face Beginnings of spoken language?, increased social cooperation (in large game hunting) Homo sapens (neandertals) archaic 130,000-28,000 BP Europe, Middle east, North Africa Monsterian tool levallois technique with pressure flaking, adapted to cold, composite tool making Very large brains (greater than or equal to Hss), robust skeleton, jaw, teeth Burial? (shanidar cave) religion: cave art, jelwery burial etc...
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  • Spring '08
  • Gonzalez
  • homo erectus, East Africa, gracile australopithecines

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