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Study_Guide - ANTH 1102 Exam 2 review(DISCLAIMER exam may...

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ANTH 1102 Exam 2 review (DISCLAIMER: exam may not cover everything herein; and that said, exam may cover material not included herein) 1. Evolution and Genetics: a. Four forces of micro evolution and be able to use each in hypothetical example / situation i. Natural Selection ii. Mutation - completely random iii.Genetic Drift (Founders Effect) 1. one gene pool will have subset move to another gene pool. iv.Gene Flow b. 3 major types of diversity that contribute to human diversity are i. cultural ii. biological iii.environmental c. Speciation - genetic mutation that results in formation of new species; occurs when subgroups of the same species are separated for a sufficient length of time. d. Allele i. a particular biochemical form of a gene. genes have multiple alleles. they don’t necessarily create different things ii. alleles can be dominant or recessive - some create different proteins that manifest themselves in different ways e. Mendel: law of independent assortment, law of segregation i. Worked on pea plants and began to cross them to determine what he would get. He worked with seed shape, seed coat, flower color, seed color and flower height. ii. His first cross generation from smooth and wrinkled seeds gave him smooth seeds. 1. Law of Segregation - alternative versions of genes (alleles) account for variations in inherited characteristics; for each characteristic, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. one of the two alleles may be dominant over the other, with it alone being expressed. the two alleles for each characteristics segregate during gamete production. 2. Law of independent assortment - the inheritance pattern of one trait will not affect the inheritance pattern of another f. Darwin
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i. 19th century naturalist he wrote On the Origin of Species. traveled on war ships, which was a normal practice for naturalists. he traveled to Galapagos Is- lands where he saw birds with various beaks and thought they were all differ- ent species. But they were, in fact, the same species. He created family tree of finches. 1859 On the Origin of Species published ii. Darwinism - 1. starts with artificial selection - traits that were selected were those that gave species ability to survive. a. species have more offspring that can grow to adulthood b. populations remain roughly the same over time c. food resources are limited, but stable over time g. Sickle-cell / malaria case: hetero vs. homozygous traits ii. sickle-cell anemia - makes people immune to malaria 1. If it is phenotype SS then they are immune to malaria but they may die from sickle-cell anemia 2. AA is the phenotype with no immunity and the person will die from malaria 3. AS symptoms of sickle-cell without it being life threatening and they are im- mune to malaria h. Uniformitarianism ii. the idea that processes that happen now happen in the past. so no new pro- cesses that re-start, everything is continual. i. Catastrophism
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Study_Guide - ANTH 1102 Exam 2 review(DISCLAIMER exam may...

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