10 Fors - Natural Resource Conservation: History &...

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Unformatted text preview: Natural Resource Conservation: History & Future Conservation ► the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of wildlife & of natural resources such as forests, soil, & water Leopold defined as: “a state of harmony between man & the land” & also coined the term “land ethic” ► Aldo Crisis on Planet Earth? Unchecked human population growth + Unprecedented economic growth = Rapid degradation of natural environment + Production of large amounts of waste 3 Main Interrelated Problems 1) Large & growing human population Excessive resource consumption & depletion Local, regional & global pollution 2) 3) Population Increase ► Human population expanding (1.2 – 1.4% annual increase) is greatest in less-developed countries environmental (social) problems can be linked to the large & growing human population ► Increase ► Most Excessive Resource Consumption & Depletion ► Mainly from industrialized or developed countries has 5% of world population but consumes 30% of resources developed countries have lower resource use but have large populations ► US ► Less Pollution ► Comes in many different forms: sewage, nutrients, sediment, chemicals, heat, light, noise, …. many potential consequences: loss of wildlife, disease, death, reduction in habitat quality, reduction in way of life,… more people & more consumption creates more pollution ► Has ► Bottom-line: Viewpoint? ► Optimist: technology will save us technology won’t save us things are bad but if we changes it will be ► Pessimists: ► Moderates: make ok Sustainable Society ► …..one that meets its needs without preventing future generations & other species from meeting their needs Principles of Sustainability ► Conservation ► Recycling ► Renewable resource use ► Restoration ► 1600s, 1700s, 1800s & even the 1900s North America was a vast land of resources soil erosion techniques used Brief History of Resource Conservation ► 1800s ► Man and Nature (1864) by George Perkins March Muir: work established 1st 3 national parks (Yellowstone, Yosemite & Sequoia); founder of Sierra Club ► John ► The first wave (1901-1909): 1908, President Teddy Roosevelt convened the White House Conference on Natural Resources resulting in the National Conservation Commission which completed the 1st Natural Resources Inventory & resulted in states forming conservation departments (e.g., Georgia DNR) Conservation in the 20th Century ► The second wave (1933-1941): President F.D. Roosevelt established the National Resources Board that completed the 2nd Natural Resources Inventory & created jobs that solved natural resource problems & unemployment programs: Prairie States Forest Project (1934) Civilian Conservation Corps (1933) Soil Conservation Corps (1935) Tennessee Valley Authority (1933) Conservation in the 20th Century ► Roosevelt’s ► The third wave (1960-1980): conservation & environmental movement took off; fueled by a number of books & essays: Silent Spring (Rachel Carson) The Population Bomb (Paul Ehrlich) The Tragedy of the Commons (Garrett Hardin) Conservation in the 20th Century Conservation in the 20th Century ► The third wave (1960-1980): established the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the early 1970s & a number of important environmental protection laws (air quality to wildlife) Water Act (1977) Air Acts (70, 77, 90) Substances Control Act (76) ► Clean ► Clean ► Toxic ► The fourth wave (1980-2000): up & down, some advances but the overall increase in population & economy overwhelmed any advances UN assembled World Commission on Environment & Development - produced Our Common Future in 1992 hosted Earth Summit in Rio Summit 2002 Johannasburg, South Conservation in the 20th Century ► 1983 ► UN ► Earth Africa Approaches to Natural Resource Management 1) Exploitation (Human-centered approach): -suggests that a given resource should be used as intensively as possible to provide the greatest profit to the user 2) Preservation (Nature-centered approach) -suggests that resources should be preserved, set aside and protected Approaches to Natural Resource Management 3) Utilitarian Approach -key principle is that of sustained yield: renewable resources should be managed so that they will never be exhausted 4) Ecological or Sustainable Approach -conservation management is designed to protect more than harvestable species (ecosystem approach) -carrying capacity: can be defined as the ability of an ecosystem to support life Approaches to Natural Resource Management 4) Ecological or Sustainable Approach -Core reserves: a region left exclusively to plants & animals -Buffer zones: areas of minimal human intrusion & impact Approaches to Natural Resource Management 4) Ecological or Sustainable Approach Adaptive Management: managing ecosystems using good scientific information & vigilant monitoring of conditions so that if management strategies are not working they can be adjusted Nemesis Effect ► Environmental outcomes that result from the interaction of several changes ► Factors may combine forces to produce unanticipated results, impacts that occur more rapidly than predicted Geographic Information System (GIS) ► Computer system consisting of hardware & software that assembles, stores, displays, manipulates & analyzes geographically referenced information be used to understand & underscore spatial relationships between mapped variables (e.g., asthma & air pollution) sensing is a means of gathering information on conditions on Earth from remote locations ► Can ► Remote Risk & Risk Assessment ►A technique that allows one to analyze existing or potential hazards for the level of danger they pose (assess the acceptability of a risk) created by humans ► Anthropogenic: ► Natural: ► Two resulting from natural events steps: Hazard identification Estimation of risk (perceived harm versus perceived benefit; cost-benefit analysis) ...
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