midtermcrib - Lecture 2 Computers and how we use them Risks...

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Lecture 2: Computers and how we use them Risks: 1. Technostress : when things break (buttons don’t work, faulty software, sites crashing, hard-drive crashing, problems with webmail, wrong browser,  etc).   Poor User Interfaces: the point of contact between the user and the tool (ex. Hammer has an interface   the handle); GUI=graphical user interface  (what you interact with when you’re interacting with a program) (Example of innovative GUI: BumpTop).  2. Multitasking; 3. Sidetracking; 4. Your mind on  Google : The human mind, only better; The “instantly available” self.  Early computers : abacus, adding machine, calculator, cash register;  UNIVAC =UNIVersal  Automatic Computer (see pg. 13 in Ethics );  BASIC : teachable programming languages (old programming language; 1 st  program to do this);  Transister =switch  (replaced vacuum tube);  Integrated Circuit : an advanced electrical circuit with transistors, capacitors (bursts of energy), resistors (limit flow of energy);  Microprocessors : very powerful (Intel);  Shockley Semiconductor —Fairchild Semiconductor—Intel; A computer is a multi-purpose tool because we don’t  know how many things it can do (The most basic component of the computer: the SWITCH or the transistor (represents the types of information that we want  stored in a processed computer; Must first encode them--“represent” them in the form of a CODE that an electronic computer can use; Encode them as  numbers; Each number associated with a part of electronic machine: switch; Of significance: the state of each switch at some moment).  5 Types of  Information : we can encode any of the following as binary numbers (0, 1)   on/off signals in hardware (light bulb on/off): 1. Numeric Values; 2. Characters;  3. Visual; 4. Audio; 5. Instructional;   BInary digiTS=”bits”.  Decimal numbers can be represented logically in binary form, and physically with switches.  Each 0  or 1 is a “bit.” –1-on, 0-off, 0-off, 1-on. Alphanumeric text?=Two-bit bit patterns; 8-bit code (8 switches): 256 unique things.  The basics: Binary digits , or  BITS are the basic unit of information storage/communication in a digital medium.  Binary code  is a method of using groups of bits as a “language” to communicate  information to your computer; A group of bits can represent text or instructions to your computer; Binary code is commonly used because it is so stable—a two —state switch .
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