07 - PHIL 163 Lying 10:13:00 Relativistic Values Some...

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14/02/2007 10:13:00 Relativistic Values: Some actions are intended to express values.  In these situation, what is right  or wrong may be culturally relative. Objective Values: Based on universal facts about human nature and social  needs We are biological creatures o We experience pain and pleasure, happiness and suffering o We have basic physical needs We are rational creatures o We need enough freedom to shape our lives We are social creatures o Requirements on social living (cooperation and trust) o We need to constrain our competition and pursuit of self-interest to  avoid disaster.  (Ideas of fairness and respect) Lying is Wrong J.S. Mill: “It is not the fault of any creed, but of the complicated nature of  human affairs, that rules of conduct cannot be so framed as to require no  exceptions, and that hardly any kind of action can safely be laid down as  either always obligatory or always condemnable.” o Lying hurts people and that’s a bad thing.  However, in some cases,  lying might be better than telling someone the truth and hurting them  more.  Immanuel Kant: “Truthfulness in statements that one cannot avoid is a human  beings duty to everyone, however great the disadvantage to him or to another  that may result from it.” o Very different view from Mill’s.   What is a lie? Some false steps:
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07 - PHIL 163 Lying 10:13:00 Relativistic Values Some...

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