Ch. 2 - Ch.2 Atoms Molecules and Ions 1.1The Atomic Theory...

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Ch.2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 1. The Atomic Theory of Matter A. Democritus (460–370 BC) a. The material world must be made up of tiny indivisible particles(atomos – meaning “indivisible or uncuttable”) B. Plato & Aristotle a. There can be no ultimately indivisible particles C. Isaac Newton (1642–1727) a. Air is composed of something indivisible and in constant motion D. John Dalton’s Atomic Theory a. Dalton’s Postulates i. Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms. ii. All atoms of a given element are identical to one another in mass and other properties, but the atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. iii. Atoms of an element are not changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions; atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions. (Law of Conservation of Mass) iv. Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine; a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms. (Law of Constant Consumption) b. Atoms are the smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical identity of the element c. Law of Conservation of Mass i. The total mass of materials present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass before the reaction. d. Law of Constant Consumption i. In a given compound, relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant.
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