ConditioningandLearningChapter4REVISED - 1 How 830:311...

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How 830:311 CONDITIONING AND LEARNING Questions and Terms for Chapter 4 Terms to know about 1) US devaluation: reduction in the attractiveness of an unconditioned stimulus, usually achieved by aversion conditioning or satiation. 2) US inflation: 3) Counter-conditioning: a conditioning procedure that reverses the organism’s previous response to a stimulus. For example, an animal may be conditioned to approach a stimulus that initially elicited withdrawal reactions. Two stimuli can become associated with each other even though both elicit strong responses initially. The response an animal makes to a CS is reversed, or “countered,” by pairing this stimulus with a US that promotes the opposite type of reaction. 4) Blocking effect: interference with the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus. From class: example: your grandma serves you rice pudding every Sunday, which always makes you sick to your stomach every Sunday. On Christmas she serves rice pudding with cookies, which you eat and still get sick to your stomach. However, you don’t develop aversion to cookies, b/c you know your stomach is hurting from the pudding. 5) Higher-order conditioning: a procedure in which a previously conditioned stimulus (CS1) is used to condition a new stimulus (CS2) 6) Sensory preconditioning: a procedure in which one biologically weak stimulus (CS2) is repeatedly paired with another biologically weak stimulus (CS1). Then, CS1 is conditioned with an unconditioned stimulus. In a later test trial, CS2 also will elicit the conditioned response, even though CS2 was never directly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. - From class notes: two stimuli are presented simultaneously over time. Each has its own response. No CR, no UR. 7) Overshadowing: (IN CHAPTER 8) interference with the conditioning of a stimulus b/c of the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easier to condition. Presenting the compound stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus. Test is with one stimuli or another. Interference with the conditioning of a stimulus b/c pf the simultaneous presence of another stimulus that is easy to condition. 8) Surprisingness: an event Is surprising is it is different from what is expected. US surprisingness is assumed to have only a prospective or proactive influence on attention and conditioning. 9) Negatively accelerated learning curve 10) Rescorla-Wagner model of CC: page 112. See question #10. 11) Pearce-Hall model of CC: assumed that how much attention an animal devotes to the CS in a given trial is determined by how surprising the US was on the preceding trial. Animals to whom the US was surprising on the preceding trial have a lot to learn and will therefore pay closer attention to that CS on the next trial. If a CS was followed by an expected US, the subject will pay less attention to that CS on the next trial. An expected US is assumed to decrease the salience or attention commanded by the CS. 12)
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2009 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830 taught by Professor 346 during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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ConditioningandLearningChapter4REVISED - 1 How 830:311...

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