Moral Conciousness Review (ANTH 146)

Moral Conciousness Review (ANTH 146) - 1 Thursday I Monism...

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1 Thursday September 27, 2007 I. Monism – one-ism – not really the antonym of dualism, rather it issues from dualism. Dualism being mutually exclusive, one-ness where you have absolute oneness. When you have an argument of mutual exclusion, they are immaculately different from each other you have also the idea of a clean boundary that divides perfectly (doesn’t connect). NO such thing as line that is perfectly divisive in the real world. Oneness also entails the idea of a perfect boundary. Whole-ism – idea of a perfect whole, we think of something perfectly whole but it still has a boundary? Government example: The leviathan – you appoint someone as your leader, b/c an individual is perfectly bounded and they come to represent a whole. They represent their unity. Monism (from Wikipedia) - Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all is one , that there are no fundamental divisions , and a unified set of laws underlie nature. Monism is to be distinguished from dualism, which holds that ultimately there are two kinds of substance. II. I raise my arm example : Suggest to us that body and mind are ambiguous? I raised my arm; My arm went up – there the ambiguity is much harder to dispel when you think of it in these terms. Body and mind are not perfectly divided but rather they present an ambiguity: body is body, mind is mind but body is mind. Humans are divided between 2 wills: the spiritual will and the bodily will. To him they were exclusive wills, constantly opposed and battling each other. When you die, you are really alive with your spirit. III. Venn Diagrams again Body and mind – you would think you would put brain the middle because it’s a common denominator but really the brain is approached as simply physical – therefore you have re-entered into dualism and are saying the mind is completely physical. Its AMBIGUITY in the middle! If Descartes put spirit in the middle, he is again reintroducing dualism because he is reducing the body to spirit. Mind is all spirit and reason. Beak and feathers in the middle of Man and Bird? What does beak and feathers look like to the preceptor, it’s all about perception and how every person views the world. If you were born in any other part of the world yourself would seem SO different than how you think of it now. Rabbit/Duck pic: What a self is depends on who is looking at it. This means you have something to do with reality. Thomas Kuhn: Scientific Para dines (models) = perspective. Changes from one perspective to another = scientific revolution. Scientists are responding to a different kind of world. Since remote antiquity most people have seen one or more body swinging back on a chain ( a pendulum). Aristotelians saw a body falling torturously to the earth. Galileo saw a body almost succeeding in repeating the same motion over and over infinitely. Scientists saw a falling stone? What it really is has something to do with the observing looking at it and observers having different perspectives. Rather than being an interpreter, the scientist who takes on a new perspective takes on a new view of the world.
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