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Chapter 1 : History of Oceanography
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Map showing 5 principal oceans Seas differ from oceans in that they are typically enclosed by land and are smaller and shallower than oceans. Dark shading = shallow areas (mostly deep water)
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c. 4000 B.C.   Egyptians develop sailing vessels At first probably used only near the mouth of the Nile Egyptian tomb boat, c 2000 BC Models of boats common in the tombs of kings and nobles, particularly during XI, XII and XIII Dynasties. Petroglyph of double-ruddered sailing vessel  Dated to 3100 BC (but dating petroglyphs tricky). Ancient Egypt www.artsales.com Egypt. Eleventh Dynasty, ca. 2134-1991 B.C. Painted wood. Lent by the Semitic Museum, Harvard University. L1999.25.2 carlos.emory.edu/COLLECTION/EGYPT/egypt13.html
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Cargo boxes from the reign of Amenemhet III (1847-1799 BC) partly covered this ship plank excavated by Cheryl Ward (Florida State Univ.) Team also found a limestone tablet engraved with pharaoh’s name Inscription in black ink on a box's side Ancient Egypt
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1500 B.C. - A.D. 1000: Oceania South Pacific Islands settled  from Southeast Asia and southern China (reviewed in McGrail 2003 - see paper for experiments investigating prehistoric navigation) Navigated without instruments Sun and stars (North Star, Great Bear, Southern Cross) Winds, swell, currents Migrating birds Clues for land: Birds Orographic (mountain-derived) clouds River water Forest fires www.lpl.arizona.edu/~jweirich/ Oceania http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov/OCEAN_PLANET/HTML/knowledge_stick_chart.html Marshall islanders learn basic navigation from charts that mark islands with shells or coral pebbles, while bent sticks show wave patterns between islands. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Satellite_photo_Tuamotus.JPEG
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Earliest known pioneers of the oceans were the pacific islanders. Thor Heyerdahl was biologist/anthropologist that sailed on balsa raft from S. America to Tuamotu Islands (7000 mi). (4000 - 5000 BC) (1100 BC)
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Phoenicians (Herodotus) mapped world in 450 BC - 3 continents surrounded by continuous ocean.
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c. 1200 - 600 B.C. Phoenicians  develop sea routes around Mediterranean, and into Red Sea and Indian Ocean Searching for tin to produce bronze, trade, and sites for colonies Understood celestial navigation, but probably stayed within sight of land if possible Explored along the African coast, perhaps to the Gulf of Guinea May have reached England by sailing along the Western European coast Classical world www.utexas.edu/courses/classicalarch/images.html Greece Greek colonies Phoenecia Phoenecian colonies
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Eratosthenes’ computation of the circumference of the Earth (200 BC). Ptolemy later miscalculated circumference as 18,000 mi. in 150 AD.
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