Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Marine Provinces Matthew Fontaine Maury the...

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Marine Provinces
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Matthew Fontaine Maury the first full-time Oceanographer ~1853 Bathymetry: measurement of ocean depth and charting of topography (3-D shape) of ocean floor
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Maury’s 1855 map of the N. Atlantic showing depth soundings
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Mapping the seabed and underlying strata Echo sounding = depth (revolutionized seafloor mapping after World War II) Seismic reflection = subsurface structure (applications?)(like a fish-finder)
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Mapping the bottom depth by echo sounder is the same principal used in a modern fish-finder
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Echo sounder trace showing biota
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Refraction profiling is used for mapping of deeper structure
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Seismic reflection profile of buried submarine mountains
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Satellite mapping of the seafloor Satellites cannot measure seafloor directly – so how? 1. Sea surface reflects sea floor
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Global underwater topography map based on satellite-derived sealevel variations
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Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico via satellite sea surface mapping. Also the only trench system in the Atlantic. Note the detail provided by satellite topographic mapping
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2. Variations in seafloor create differential gravity forces on satellite’s orbit – called ‘gravity anomalies.’ From this, seafloor topography can be calculated
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Anatomy of continental margin The shelf is shallow (< 200 m), the slope is the steepest part, and the rise connects the slope to the abyss. Shelf generally tilts less than 0.5 degree seaward, slope averages about 4 degrees and the Rise goes back to about 1 degee. The Rise is due to the accumulated sediments that come off the shelf. The abyssal plain is also flat due to the accumulation of sediments that have buried the underlying basalt topography.
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OCEAN BASIN STRUCTURE S Mid-ocean Ridge volcanic mountain range roughly parallel to the continental margins. Axial Rift narrow trough at the crest of mid-ocean ridges Fracture Zones elongate zone of unusually irregular topography characterized by seamounts and steep-sided ridges. These are the scars of transform faults Abyssal Plains very flat region of the ocean floor at great depths (below 4000 meters)
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2009 for the course GEOL 103 taught by Professor Dr.ries during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Chapter 4 - Marine Provinces Matthew Fontaine Maury the...

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