Chapter 2 - Origin of the Universe Solar System and Oceans...

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Origin of the Universe, Solar System and Oceans How old is the universe? How old is the solar system? What differentiates the planets? (why do we have an ocean?) Where did the water in the oceans come from?
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Universe Galaxy Solar System Planet
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low_quicktime.mov Big Bang Big Bang
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ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE , MILKY WAY, AND SOLAR SYSTEM Time after Big Bang Description of Universe Temperature 0 Universe is point sphere of infinite density 10 -35 sec Universe has expanded to size of a pea 10 28 ¡C 1 sec Universe is composed of radient e nergy and neutrons 100 billion ¡C 10 min Cooling - Hydrogen nuclei form (neutron _ proton + electron) 1 billion ¡C 1 day Helium nuclei form (2 H nuclei _ He nuclei) 100,000 years Hydrogen and helium atoms form (expanding universe has cooled enough that free electrons could be trapped by nuclei) 2000 ¡C 1 billion years Hydrogen and helium atoms agglomerate into megaclouds (proto -galaxies) 1 to 10 billion years Period of nucleosynethesis (fusion) (production of heavy elements during explosion of massive stars, i.e. Òred giantsÓ) 5 billion years Milky Way Galaxy is formed 10 bill ion years Origin of the solar system 15 billion years -270 ¡C
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Milky Way Galaxy (formed ~15 billion years ago) Milky-way Galaxy (our galaxy) >100 billion stars in our galaxy; all stars seen from Earth at night are in the Milky-way. >100 billion galaxies in our universe MW Galaxy is 100,000 light-years wide; 1 light year = distance light travels in one year = 10 trillion km Nearest star to sun is 40 trillion km way
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Andromeda Galaxy (nearest galaxy to our Milky-way galaxy)
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Life of a Star Clouds of He and H form Clouds contract and increase in temperature Fusion occurs at high temperatures (2H → He) Energy released as light Successive contractions convert He to successively heavier elements: C, O, Si, and Fe When enough Fe is formed to create an Fe core, star contracts and then explodes – “supernova”
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Planetary Nebula Supernova
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How old is the universe?
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Red shift-Distance relationship Red-shift method for estimating speed of galaxies
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Retreat velocity vs distance of galaxies If you run them backwards you can calculate the length of time they have been flying apart 15,000,000,000 years Broecker ‘85
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If a galaxy that is 1 x 1027 cm from Earth is retreating at 2 x 109 cm/s, how much time has elapsed since the Earth and that galaxy were at the same point in space? 27 17 9 7 17 10 7 1 10 cm Time = 5 10 s 2 10 cm/s Number of seconds in a year is 10 y 5 10 s 1.6 10 y = 16 billion years 3.14 10 s π × = × × × × × = × ×
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So… We know approximate age of the universe from the time-distance relationship of galaxies (thanks to the red-shift phenomenon)
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