#1 Filled in Skeleton Notes

#1 Filled in Skeleton Notes - Chem_130_2004_Introduction to...

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Chem_130_2004_Introduction to biological chemistry, Hogan, B.P. Chapter 1: Life I. Introduction to Biological Chemistry A. Biochemistry literally means the study of the chemistry of life 1. Life on earth began ~ 3.5 billion years ago 2. early origins laid basis for all biochemical processes 3. “Chemical unity underlies biological diversity” – Dr. Marlene Kayne B. Life expresses itself through biomolecules 1. a.k.a. biological macromolecues these are the polymers that are passed on simple complex example: “inert monomer” “active polymer” life II. Types of biomolecules—many are polymers of repeating subunits C. Proteins : polymers of amino acids (A.A.) D. Nucleic Acids (N.A.s) : (also polymers) heterocyclic nitrogenous bases on a sugar phosphate backbone Ribosome 66% = RNA E. Lipids : repeating –(CH 2 )- hydrocarbon units 1. Energy storage long term energy storate for higher order vertebrates 2. Membranes phospholipids bilayers F. Carbohydrates: Repeating sugar units (sucrose, fructose) 1. Short term energy cellulose = glycogen fit together in special ways 2. Examples: glycogen – polymer of glucose, stored in liver & skeletal muscle (lasts about 24 hrs) G. Small molecules and ions: there are several biologically important small molecules (vitamins, for example) and ions. a. coenzymes (NAD + , FAD) b. Na + , K + 1
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Chem_130_2004_Introduction to biological chemistry, Hogan, B.P. II. Questions to ask yourself as a biochemist: A. What are the chemical and 3-dimensional structures of biomolecules B. How do biological macromolecules interact with eachother C. How are biomolecules synthesized and degraded D. How does the organization of biomolecules influence their activity VI. Biology obeys the laws of thermodynamics A. Physical forces influence the behavior of biological systems B. Points to review from general chemistry 1. Enthalpy – heat (ΔH) 2. Entropy – disorder (ΔS) 3. Gibbs free energy - ΔG – MOST IMPORTANT – the spontaneiety of reactions 4. Equilibrium constants 5. Acid/Base chemistry (buffers) - Arrhenius Acid – raises the [H+] in H2O Arrhenius Base – raises the [OH-] in H2O Bronsted-Lowry Acid – Donates proton to another substance Bronsted-Lowry Base – Accepts a proton from another substance *The Henderson-Hasselbach equation – a relationship b/t Ka of any weak acid and pH of a solution containing both that acid and it’s conjugate base. C. All biological systems are buffered. Most effective Biological Buffer system: H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - 1. Example: Blood as a buffer - sodium bi-carbonate system monitors pH of Blood -high respiration (hyperventilation) removes CO2 which raises pH -but here H+ ions react with excess HCO3- and returns blood pH back to normal -Short bursts of exercise produce lactic acid in the blood and lowers pH – this is why you breathe excessively while and after exercise -high altitude causes hyperventilation, and can dangerously raise pH -In a buffered solution, by adding acid, all of the added H+ ions
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2009 for the course CHEM 430 taught by Professor Redinbo during the Spring '07 term at UNC.

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#1 Filled in Skeleton Notes - Chem_130_2004_Introduction to...

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