Health and Human Rights

Hem epidemlaloglcal studies discovered two key facts

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Unformatted text preview: alth problems. Asswance of s m'ces involves the design, implementation, and e valhtion of programs to address priority health problems in the community. 0 :. 1. i k-. BUC HEAITH A ND HUMAN BEHAVIOR history of public health was closely related to the control of infecepidemics, modem public health is.challengedmainly by probfrom human behaviol; both individual and col-ective. The death in the modem world involve to a substantial extent international Federation of R ed Cross e t ai. Public Health: An Introduction . FI , %l lk fairly recsntly, such events as af.hmobtle~~de&, buseH6ild fires, or drowrrlhgs were s;?'mplyconskiereti "mcidrJnts;" k [email protected],€heym e seen as wpr,e6!4CtabL:evenYs wurr"lng without warning. No o n a k n w how common such accidents really wFe. 'hem, epidemlaloglcal studies discovered two key facts: R , accidents are m h@ i predictable and are not really .random'ewehs. Far t h t ~eason, the Game r was changed from ac&&nb ([email protected] n p r d i m h ~ b W'WulrFies.&nplyl.ngm ) & i B Q r m , oment, and WhfrQlt h p~ rabtem),' k m - d , il.liuflfssvwem und W to be a major cause of hospitalinatlun, disability a ndldem im. l n d u a r i ~ l m dnd a dev&@ng countties. Once fhe problbm of injydes was ceoognized a nd soienufmally studtad, spe6Mjc wevention interventionscould be m tt~nally esimed, implemented, and d @m4uated.Fore&mple, Bums wwld be p r.htedl3y&amgs lrn stove Irroatiin or d asig, eutofnoblle seat b e b could p ~ c g a s ~ ~%c t.uy s rmjrr e? , ii and .. o h l l d p r o o f m w o r ~ ~ ~ae medisagan a n d b u s a b l d ~ ~ h ~ l s f ;s muldtprt?uent p oiknfng of children;-These -9s have provantheir eIBcttveness. The basicstrategies d injwry preventioncan be lluus& q ample , o f mator v ~ h k l e injurles. The ultima'te ar;lp.optMi~$l (primary prnYedti0g is to p m t automobile oreshes i n the first place. One approach is to mq& human behwjpr, either through informatibn and enfiation (for example, educe tion o n safe driving) or through lpws or other requirements (for exam,ple, severe 'pepalties for sp,eklltig or dgWrig while i n&cat~). Ahother apl),'d&h is t o ' m odwthe environment (fer example, creating safer r o d s with iinproved I*&ht. ing, traffic signals, 'Eind separation of traffit flow@ When pm'narypreventionfails, puQHchealth effort& &T also help reditce the . I - severity of the injury whtch will occur to autom&ilie.occcupaMs fn a cwsh ( g ,by. e. requiringthe u s e ds ea belt$). Finally+.whpn% emn:isI n i W in an automobile p crash, emergency medical servTces (ternary p r e v m ~ nw k MeWrg. ) , Rnqlly,as p r e research was c ondumd on injlrdw, m e s fidtldng, victimblaming concept O f an "accident~rone"p qonglity was discredited. Rhthet: than blaming the person, public h eam efforts to prevent automobile injuries shifted to the risk environment and tJ?e role aS, [email protected] [email protected] condiand,o tions in crea€ing the conditions in which accidents were more ffequent., .- Ih summary, due to public heqltli studies, injuttes (a majar '&hie of death #&&,pu$~g people Worldwide] changed from being an i MsIble Issue CdlsiQ :wted'8 fiawbf 'chance" or "fate" td an iJnportiaPtpubmc heaft31 responsibility. I Perhaps because human behavior is the most complex challenge imaginable, ealth has often neglected the behavioral dimension of health. ,Forexample, traditional public health programs designed to control sexually transmitted disease tended to focus on diagnosis and treatment, rather than on sexyltjehavior jtself. Similarly, family planning programs emphasized making & r h g eof safe and acceptable contraceptive options available (gn extremely objective), yet they also generally avoided discussions of sexuality. Since efforts to modify human behabior are complex and difficult, many seek an environmental, technical, or engineering solution to public roblems. However, the major lesson from public health experience a combined strategy, using multiple approaches, generally works than any single intervention. Indeed, precise identification of which or combination of interventions, made the critical difference for ng health in a community is frequently difficult to determine. inally, while recognizing a legacy of neglect of human behavior in traditional public health, modern public health is working to correct this situatian by emphasizing the critical importance of behavior for health. $eY ; In 1978, the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in Alms Ata, declared that primary health care (PHC) is the key to attaining the goal o f health for all by the year 2000. i Primary health care is based on practical, scientifically sound, and socially it., acceptable methods and technology. It should be made universally accessible to individuals and families in their community through their full particips ; tion and at an affardable cost on a continuing basis. Primary health care takes place at the first contact between individuals and the national health ,system, as close as possible t g where people live and work. It is the first element in a continuing health care process and forms an integral part of the , country's health system. Initially, the Declaration of Alma-Ata defined eight elements of PHC. Not all 'these elements are present in every PHC program. They should be encouraged in every community striving toward health for all. These elements are: - ,4 9 . ,education concerning prevailing h ealv problems and the methods of ~ ~eventing controlling them and .promotion of food supply and proper nutrition an adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation maternal and child health care, includingfamily planning idmunization against major infectious diseases 'prevention and control of locally endemic diseases a.appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries provision of essential drugs mental health and dental health accident prevention Additional elements have been included since 1978: : I* :.. .I - .. International Fedemon of Red Cross et al. idluence the societ'al conditions inwhich people can d y lea& far bey~nd~ensuring to medical amm rts to ensure oppmmi&iessuch as h a t i o n ) , ( . e i n d m a r ( i g c l u ~ h a @numitionsand wakplgce safw) ~ n o &mats $0 m e m l o r ~ s d awell-being (4 violence DT f l as I P ART II d be ~ e u i yt,[email protected], &at ~ a i m o a f~ihtica~nb . a ~ t w r r y s j ~ li?miaA5c&&&m c1earl.y crn~m&~~&zt+ &1 k J~B* w ,*seto mda~,~ .Wwpm rrElpe @ W ~ r ~ ~ * ~ ~ p - r q r n ~ ~ . k d e h a a d ~ p r r v m W W a @ y i n f i ~ & b yd a b wbd p r i o d i ~s~ e a @ n & a e ' t b h e . . a @ m & ~ sen &&iai&e w c, & a ,of d i ~ {i%&qp&mn'ti~lli); & [email protected], l%&mhR~i1~ & otm in*tervejlmians,ra&er taaa fbcw@&on piimsy preveWw+%1: the'pople. & In addidan, while &my s & W M ' e &ib&h &at [email protected] is a powedul_. a d r eqct~r b h st:@.t~~ overty & snly part o Dh p of ?p e x p l a ! t U and &patwe death. T*nr is i n ~ r e & @ ~ " & @ , h t . ! ~ f &lI,[email protected] h p n i igkts d d e i t y 'e f ' indspdmtlya d d e d s i ~ ~i-sy l health s tam. In srrsnsmary, mmodh.p;rr%k dddconsidersM &'in its bzaaaest h e n h rsions. 3tarhg with a history of epidemic control, &e mcxTempubfi~%ealth movement is [email protected] ip d foh t tra&fmm s wi& in %&erto e a ensure the condi&ansf w I + d peopl+d $eoP1-an be healthY. The p ats of pubk h & , and.t$e sped& me+ it e r n ~ l y so rejlch e& t, these gods, inevitably bsing p,pMc into c o w kiJ. ,ri&ts. The neza sectionexplores#the everal'hkmnshsof tliis m amary a n d h d a s mental dialogue bemeen public health and human ri&ts. s o w 8 &[email protected] r b r t B - M m t amp'$%~~drs~~~ tdhz.8a~& 'REFERENCE 1. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 1986....
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2009 for the course PHIL 163 taught by Professor Wong,d during the Spring '08 term at Duke.

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