Study Guide 1 - Geology 1121 Study Guide Lecture Notes...

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Geology 1121 Study Guide Lecture Notes – Critical Resource: Water Much of Earth’s food production depends on irrigation Withdrawal of groundwater and river water is greater than the recharge of supply -groundwater comes from rain, so when droughts occur there is a shortage -the Great Plains has fossils groundwater that formed during Ice Age when the climate was wetter and all the snow and ice melted, yet this source of water is not renewable and it is still being consumed -water is not renewable Critical Resource: Oil It takes millions of years for oil to form because it comes from old marine microorganisms The older the oil the better- 200 million years -The Earth is about 4 billion years old and we have used up half of the earth’s oil in only 150 years. -But when oil production cannot meet consumption, the rate of oil production reaches a max at the level of half way used, from then it declines! Critical Issues: Global Warming “10 of the hottest years on record have been within these recent years!” What is global warming? It occurs when accumulated gases (carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane) produce infrared radiation from the solar radiation and they in turn cannot escape the atmosphere and heat the Earth’s surface Correlation between concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere started during 1930’s-industrial revolution-human activity increase These are all not natural events or cycles that the Earth goes through
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How do we understand the Earth? The scientific understanding of the Earth is physics and chemistry of earth. Earth science (not rocket science – engineering). Science is the understanding of nature. Laws and Theories in Science Law = principles, statements of empirical observations that cannot be reduced to simpler observations. Conservation of energy- radioactive decay Constancy of the speed of light – uncertainty principle Theory is a rational, rigorous, testable, predictive and quantitative framework that allows us to understand, measure, and predict how natural processes work. Theories are based on observations, suggest what further observations are needed to refine understanding of nature; must be testable, doesn’t mean “uncertainty” “maybe” “on paper only” Structure of Composition of the Earth The earth is a differential planet Radius of earth- 4,000 miles 6400 km (As it spins it flattens out- earth is more peared shaped) Earth is not homogenous Different layers that differ in chemical composition and physical composition. Layers of Earth Solid earth: the crust [rocks made up of aluminum silicate –mineral composed mainly by silicon and oxygen ] *Silicon, Iron, Oxygen, and Aluminum most abundant in earth Crust “skin of an apple”
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8 km thin on ocean floor 30-50 km thin on land - Around 5-6 km deepest ever drilled for oil - 17 km = 11 miles deepest ever drilled for research in Russia Mantle - Composed of 95% magnesium, the rest silicon, oxygen - 3,000 km deep Core - Metal (95% Iron, and the nickel) -
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