ch8 - Chapter 8 Mass Movements Creep is the downslope...

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Chapter 8- Mass Movements Creep is the downslope movement of the soil and uppermost bedrock zones. Swelling is caused by: 1) Porosity- water filling pores increases volume by 9 percent 2) Soil rich in clay minerals is wetted, it absorbs water and expands. 3) Heating by the Sun causes an increase in volume. Soil expands perpendicular to the ground surface. Shrinkage of soil: 1) thaws 2) dries 3) cools External Causes of Slop Failure 1) Steepening the slope, e.g. fault movements 2) Removing support from the low on a slope, e.g. streams or ocean-wave erosion 3) Adding mass high on a slope, as in sediment deposition Internal causes of slope failure Inherently weak materials 1) Clay crystals- booklike structure typical forms in the soil zone where water strips away elements, leaving many unfilled atomic positions in crystal structures. 2) Water lessens strength of clay minerals by absorbing to the exterior and interlayer of clays. Quick clays- abundant in Scandinavia and eastern Canada and occur in the northeastern US
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ch8 - Chapter 8 Mass Movements Creep is the downslope...

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