Ferg_ch_11_II

Ferg_ch_11_II - Atmosphere, Oceans and Long-Term Climate...

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Atmosphere, Oceans and Long-Term Climate Change Natural Disasters, 6 th edition, Chapter 11
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• Required amount of heat to raise temperature of water ( specific heat ) is high Convection : transmission of heat in flowing water or air Conduction : direct transmission of heat through contact Water and Heat
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• Water vapor in atmosphere: between 0 and 4% by volume Absolute humidity : amount of water in air mass Saturation humidity : maximum amount of water an air mass can hold (increases with increasing temperature) Relative humidity : ratio of absolute and saturation humidity Water and Heat Dew point when Ah = Sh
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Water and Heat Water absorbs, stores and releases solar energy between liquid, solid and gas phases Ice -> water absorbs 80 cal/g: latent heat (1 g fat has 9000 cal) Liquid vapor absorbs 600 cal/g: latent heat of vaporization Ice vapor absorbs 680 cal/g: latent heat of sublimation Liquid ice releases 80 cal/g: latent heat of fusion Vapor liquid releases 600 cal/g: latent heat of condensation Vapor ice releases 680 cal/g: latent heat of deposition Figure 11.5
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Vertical Movement of Air Air : easily compressed, denser and denser closer to Earth’s surface • Flows from higher to lower pressure upward if heated • As heated air rises, it is under lower pressure so expands • Expansion causes adiabatic cooling (temperature decrease without loss of heat energy) • Descending air is compressed and undergoes adiabatic warming (temperature increase without gain in heat energy)
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Vertical Movement of Air • Air undergoes about 10 C adiabatic cooling per km of rise, 10 o C adiabatic warming per km of descent • As air cools, can hold less and less water vapor relative humidity increases • When relative humidity = 100% (altitude = lifting condensation level ), water vapor condenses and latent heat is released , which slows rate of upward cooling to about 5 o C per km of rise
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Vertical Movement of Air Differential Heating of Land and Water • Low heat capacity of rock land heats up and cools down quickly relative to water Winter : – Land cools quickly, cool air sinks high-pressure – Ocean retains warmth, so warm, moist air rises – Cold, dry air from land flows out over ocean • Summer : – Land heats quickly, hot, dry air rises low pressure – Ocean warms slowly, cool, moist air sinks over ocean – Cool, moist air over ocean drawn to low pressure over land, warms, rises, cools, condenses, rains summer monsoons
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Vertical Movement of Air Figure 11.6
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Layering of the Lower Atmosphere Troposphere: Lowest layer of atmosphere 8 km at poles and 18 km at equator Warm at base, cold above unstabl e mixing of warm and cold Tropopause: Top of troposphere Stratosphere: Stable configuration of warmer air above colder air Figure 11.7
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General Circulation of Atmosphere Atmosphere transports heat: low latitudes to high latitudes Figure 11.8
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This note was uploaded on 03/22/2009 for the course GEOL 171 taught by Professor Tsoflias during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Ferg_ch_11_II - Atmosphere, Oceans and Long-Term Climate...

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