19-Genes in Populations

19-Genes in Populations - BSCI 106 Dr Sara Via Outline 19...

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BSCI 106 Outline 19 Fall, 2008 p. 1 Dr. Sara Via Genes in Populations Individuals vs. Populations Individuals have maximum of two alleles Allelic probabilities in gametes are ______________ Population contains alleles of all the individuals Population gene (allele) frequencies may be 0 barb4right 1 there may be >2 alleles at a given locus in a population! Questions at individual level gamete or progeny genotype frequencies? Questions at population level ____________________________________________ Is a population in equilibrium, or is there evolutionary change? Key terms for Population Genetics Allele: Alternative forms of a gene (e.g. A vs. a) Genotype: The combination of alleles present for a gene in a diploid organism (AA, Aa, or aa) Gene pool: All the individual alleles in a population for a given locus (A, a, A*, a*, a’, a”) Gene frequency = allele frequency (of A): In a given population, the fraction of all the alleles at that locus that are A. Evolution for Population Geneticists Evolution = change in gene (allele) frequency in a population Evolution IS NOT _______________ Individuals CAN’T evolve! Populations evolve. As successful genotypes leave more progeny, the population comes to look more and more like them. (what do we mean by “success” here??) Seeing phenotypic change in a population over time is not enough to say there has been evolution Ex: mean human height has increased by several inches in past 150 years.
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