Outline 22-Evolution in Medicine

Outline 22-Evolution in Medicine - BSCI 106 Dr Sara Via...

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BSCI 106 Outline 22 Fall 2008 p. 1 Dr. Sara Via Evolution in Medicine -Disease occurs in populations, which evolve! -- Body is a population of cells -- Sick individuals harbor populations of bacteria, viruses, etc -- Populations of disease organisms can live outside the body -- Behavior in human populations affects disease transmission Cancer-- Natural selection among cells - Sometimes control of cell cycle goes awry - Cells that don’t stop dividing form tumors rob other cells of resources - Can break away from original location and spread around the body - Cancer cells have increased survival and reproduction! - Characteristics of normal cells * Reproduce themselves exactly * Stop reproducing at the right time * Stick together in the right place * Self destruct if they are damaged * Become specialized or 'mature' Cancer-- How do cells become cancerous renegades? - Normal Cells * growth genes normally turned off * tumor suppressor genes normally turned on - Mutations can affect regulation of these genes and others involved in cell division - Characteristics of cancer cells * They carry on reproducing * They don't obey signals from other neighboring cells * They don't stick together * They don't become specialized, but stay immature * They don't die if they move to another part of the body Evolution of HIV HIV the virus that causes AIDS It is a RETROVIRUS-- copies its DNA into the host’s DNA
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BSCI 106 Outline 22 Fall 2008 p. 2 Dr. Sara Via Reverse transcription very error-prone, no repair VERY high mutation rate among 10 10 virus
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